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ANTH 2414 Erhart Exam 3

Terms

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Different molar types
tribosphenic, bilophodant, Y-5
Primitive traits
characteristics found in an ancestor and all or most of it's decendents
Fitness differences of behavior categories
selfish, mutualistic, altruistic, spiteful
Spandrels
byproducts of structural change
Platyrrhine (New world monkeys)
side facing nostrils, 3 premolars
Relative dating methods
Carbon 14, dendrochronology, potassium-argon dating, fission-track dating
Affiliation
cooperative behaviors, bond enhancing
Paleospecies
species that is now extinct
Language
open, productive, displacement, arbitrary
Catarrhine (Old world monkeys)
down facing nostrils, 2 premolars
Primate evolutionary trends
unspecialized post-cranial skeleton, pentadactyly (5 digits on feet and hands), nails & high sensitive tactile pads, flexible hands/feet (prehensibility), tendency towards upper body erectness, retention of the clavicle, teeth & diet
Causes of speciation
reproductive isolation, genetic divergence (mutations, genetic drift, natural selection)
Homoplastic (analogous) traits
dissimilar structures used for the same purpose (butterfly and bat wings)
Food properties
fruit (high energy, easy to digest, sporadic, not reliable) leaves (easily available, high protein, hard to chew/digest due to cellulose and toxins), insects (high protein, high energy, easy to digest, not always easy to find or catch)
Homologous derived traits
characteristic found in more then one, but not all, descendent forms and not in the common ancestor
Monophyletic group
group where two groups share a common ancestor
Mammalian subgroups
monotremes, marsupials, placentals
Digestibility of food
fruits and insects are easy, leaves need secculated stomach, more complex
Temporal availability of food
diurnal, nocturnal, cathemeral
Importance of food for females
more important due to gestation and lactation needing more energy
Tooth and gut specializations
Folivores (narrow incisors, sharp crests on molars, elongated intestines with large caecum complex, Frugivores (large incisors, low round cusps on molars) Insectivores (pointed, sharp premolar and molar cusps, short and simple gut)
Prosimian Characteristics
Big ears, scent glands for communication, eyes not completely in front, tapitur lucidum, fetus separated by 2 layers of tissue, low gestation, multiple nipples, small body size, tooth comb, infused mandible, grooming claw, wet nose
Recent primate suborders
strepsirines and haplorhines
Chordates
have spinal chords
Sexual selection
males are under more pressure to find mates. Males have secondary sex traits used for intimidation of other males
Diastemas
gaps between teeth to receive the projecting canine of the opposite jaw
Agonism
aggressive or combative "selfish" behaviors
r-selection
species with high productive rates, little parental investment, fast development, high mortality rate, and small belly size
Homologous traits
similar structures (arm bones in whales, humans, and dogs)
Ecological Niche
all the components in an environment with which an organism interacts
Inclusive fitness
success of relatives
Anagenesis
straight line evolution can't use Biological species concept because organisms are not living at the same time
Punctuated equilibrium
periods of stasis and then rapid change, most change occurring during speciation
Spacial availability of food
clumped, evenly dispersed, randomly scattered, different sections of the canopy
The basal primates (Altialasius, Decoredon)
first primates. Only teeth have been found
Dental formula
using half of the upper and lower to indicate the number of each tooth a mammal has
Kin selection theory
behavior that favors family and others in close proximity
Theories of primate evolution
arboreal theory, angiosperm co-evolution theory (flowering plants), visual predation theory (adaptions for low light, insect foraging)
Gradualism
small changes over time. smooth and gradual
5 areas of socioecological pressures
Nutritional ecology, locomotion, predation, selfish herd concept, intraspecific competition
5 Perspectives of behavior
phylogeny, otogeny, proximate stimulus, behavior itself, function
Sectoral lower first premolar
a single cuspid premolar that forms a cutting, slicing complex with the cutting edge of the upper canine
Process of fossilization
only hard tissues fossilize. burial must be quick. Soil must be non-acidic
Preservation potential of bone
depends on volume, composition, shape, and hydraulic behavior
Adoptive radiation
mammals filling all the open niches that the dinosaurs left when they became extinct
Sympatric
different species sharing the same habitat
Evolutionary systematics
overall similarity in homologous traits
Haplorine Characteristics
small ears, eyes in front, retinal phobia, single placental layer, long gestation, 1 pair of nipples, large body size,
Phylogenic constraints
limits on current behavior or traits due to patterns and trends in an organism's evolutionary past
Cladogenesis
Branching evolution. can use biological species concept
Cladistics
remaining primitive traits from equation because so many organisms have them, focus on derived or modified traits
Dental comb
the incisors and canines on lower jaw that protrude outward for grooming
Congeneric primates
both species are found in the same genus
Primate conservation
use sustainable development, use economic incentives, westerners should be more responsible (consumption)
Vertebrates
have a backbone
Derived traits
characteristics found only in one descendent branch and in the ancestral form
Extinctions
average life span of a species is 4 million years, more then 99% of all species that ever existed are extinct. Worst happened 250 millions years ago
Body size as a predictor of diet
small size can easily survive on fruits and insects. larger body size needs higher bulk of food
Cultural or "local" traditions
some groups of chimps will clasp overhead while others won't
Mammalian characteristics
can be monotremes, marsupial, or placental. Can have r or k selection or reproduction. Uses temperature regulation, heterodonic teeth, large brain
Taphonomy
what happened from the time of death to when the fossil was found
Primates of modern aspect (adapoids, omomyoids)
similar to lemurs/lorises
Convergent evolution
2 different organisms with the same features due to similar environment
Dominance
status of individuals
Outgroup
related organism to groups you are looking at
k-selection
low productive rate, high parental investment, slow development, low mortality rates, and large body size
Traditional primate suborders
prosimians (lemurs, lorises, galagos, tarsiers) and anthropoids (new world and old world monkeys, apes, humans)
Niche separation
exploiting the same environment differently
Tool Use
mostly used for food procurement
Plesiadapiformes
primate-like animals
Comparative primatology
the study of our closest living relatives, the primates, for the purpose of understanding aspects of our own behavior
Rafting theory of new world primates
small pieces of land broke off with primates on them and floated from Africa and North America to South America
Biological species concept
reproductive capability-in the wild, if 2 organisms produce viable offspring that are in themselves fertile, then they are the same species
Individual fitness
individual success
Infanticide
pathology or reproductive strategy to increase fitness of males in charge that are only there for a short time. Killing infants brings females back into estrus
Earliest anthropoid (apidium, Aegyptopithecus)
old world, and new world monkeys
Behavioral ecology
the study of behavior from an ecological perspective
Altruism
give up your needs for another. rb>c

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