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afp midterm

realism

Terms

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impressment
british forced captured people to sail in the british navy
Conventional Forces in Europe treaty
nato, sovs agreed to lower number of units in europe
communist coup in czechoslovakia
1948 communists took over in czech
European Union
created 1992, political economic union in europe with a common currency, shared social policy, common defense
iran/contra affair
sell arms to iran to give the money to the contras bc congress wouldnt allow funding of contras
first world
US and allies during cold war, contrast to soviets
levels of analysis
international, national/domestic, and individual, foreign policy decisions can be understood by analyzing which factor (intl, national, ind) influence decisionmakers choices
ethnic cleansing
what yugo govt called their killings
bolshevik party
socialist/marxist party in soviet union, overthrew kerensky (who overthrew czar)
revisionists
believe US caused cold war by exerting influence internationally
american exceptionalism
concept that america is better because it is removed from europe, a beacon of enlightenment
terrorist threat
increased threat from domestic terrorists as well as al qaeda during 1990s
constitutional framework
concept that the constitution was designed to separate powers
jingoism
uberpatriotism, intense nationalism
carter doctrine
return to containment, no more detente
GATT
set of agreements that lowered international tariffs
treaty of paris (1918)
punish germany (war guilt, $) selfdetermination across europe
Iron curtain
from stettin to trieste, eastern europe under iron curtain
collective security
if one is attacked, all go to defense, main principle of league of nations
leadership isolation
bureaucracy keeps top decisionmaker isolated
ideological criteria
interest usually in cold war of fighting communism, or wilsonian idealism
victoriano huerta
mexican general overthrew diaz in early 1900s, civil war, antiamerican
Persian GUlf War
iraq invade kuwait, UN issues resolution against them, authorizes force
state sponsored terrorism
country supplies weapons to terrorist groups
US interests in latin america
mostly on behalf of large companies, lots of power projection throughout the hemisphere
nunn/lugar bill
US provide russia with billion to enhance security of nukes, paid russian nuke scientists to not defect
NATO/Russian founding act
not a treaty, but established council btwn east and west to address main issues after cold war
sovereignty
the government of a state is the highest lawful authority within its boundaries
traditionalists
view that US was isolationist after war b/c of demobilization, place cold war blame on soviets
Free Trade Area of the Americas
34 western hemisphere countries agree to lower tariffs
north atlantic coordination council
council gave former commies in e.eur ways to communication with nato countries
governmental politics model
what happens in foreign policy is a result of internal bargaining, and the maneuvering/personal relationships of principal players involved
START I
strategic arms reduction treaty w/sovs, agreed to reduce nuclear warheads (1991)
nonaligned movement
3rd world not tied to any superpower
European Community
remove tariffs within europe, reached goal by 1992
great depression
massive worldwide depression, intl trade collapse, unemployment,
cuban missile crisis
sovs missiles in cuba, kennedy blockade cuba, take out turk missiles
arab/israeli peace process
US tried to negotiate agreements between PLO and israel, successful in 1994 (oslo) but collapsed
munich conference
allies allow germany to gain sudetenland portion of czechoslovakia
historical experience
what a nation has gone through in its past shapes its current foreign policy
anglo/american rapprochment
US/UK support each other, grow closer in late 19th/early20th bc of colonialism germans etc.
Cold war
political/military/economic confrontation between US and USSR
Partnership for peace
military partnership between NATO, former soviet countries
preemptive defense
US will attack others before attacked
organizational process model
decisions are constrained by the bureaucratic dynamics and standard operating procedures of the bureaucracies involved
US occupations of DR, Nic, Haiti
us put forces in DR to maintian order, Nic to fight commies, and haiti to maintain order
collapse of eastern european communism
communists voted out of office, gorb didnt do anything (sinatra doctrine), US didnt actually do much
idealism
advocates settlement of international disputes according to international law, as well as IOs and collective security
antiimperialism
idea that felt US shouldnt be imperialistic, should be different than europe
manifest destiny
concept that the United States had to expand to the pacific
realism
nations external relations rests on foundation of military and economic strength
pluralism
multiple influential groups (pacs, other IGs)
NSC68
review of security policy, advocated large conventional and nuclear forces
SDI
strategic defense initiative- space based missile defense
enlargement
US promote democracy, open markets, western values
concert of europe
informal group in europe w/austria, france, UK, prussia, russia kept things in order after napoleon, preserved peace in europe for a bit
iran hostage crisis
1979 islamic revolution, hostage taken
detente
improved relations between US, sovs
second world
USSR allies
neutrality acts
passed by congress to ensure US stays isolated from WWII
Jose Marti
cuban freedom fighter in 1890s
dollar diplomacy
economic intervention rather than military in some countries
constructivism
focuses on how social constructs of international politics influence relations between states
World Trade Organization
negotiated tariff reductions, replaced GATT
debate over empire
antiimperialists/imperialists debated over whteher to expand or not
military superiority
ability of a state to dominate militarily, usually a main national interest
war on terror
intl agreement to attack terrorism, no end in sight
sputnik
soviet satellite, set off space race
involvement
getting involved with other nations
economic protectionism
imposes tariffs, quotas, and other restraints on trade in order to protect domestic industries
globalization
the growth of worldwide networks of interdependence
Kosovo conflict
US sent peacekeepers to defend kosovo
jay treaty
resolved issues with GB, canadian border and british forts along frontier
truman doctrine
US will help anticomm forces with aid, guns, containment
marshall plan
gave $ to europe to rebuild after WWII
arab/israeli conflict
various arabs hate on israel. you know this.
bosnian civil war
serbs+yugo govt massacre muslims, UN stood by and did nothing
cultural identity
interest b/c feel similar with another country, ie britain, south africa
european occupation of mexico
GB, fr, spain occupied mexico to force them to pay a debt, US restrained. GB/spain left, france isntall monarch, overthrown.
teller amendment
US said they would not annex cuba
neoliberalism
similar to idealism, place a premium on international law and ethics, human rights, etc.
creoles
cuban born spaniards
texas revolution and annexation
texas wanted independence from mexico b/c lots more whites were moving in, became republic of texas, then annexed by US b/c lots of slaveholders wanted more room to expand
multilateralism
acting after consulting other nations
american intervention in russia
uS intervene in russia to help monarchists, prevent japs from getting a hold in siberia
economic strength
interest especially when resources are involved (ie oil)
engagement
US would not be isolationist, but would cooperate, assist, and negotiate other countries
bretton woods, IMF
stabliized exchange rates and set values in terms of dollar and gold
balance of power
the world is anarchic and power is constantly in flux
yalta and potsdam conferences
big 3 met, agree to allow soviets have influence in eastern europe (potsdam allow for partition of germany)
louisiana purchase
jeff purchased louisiana terr from french b/c of fears of french dominance and new orleans
good neighbor policy
US wont use as much force in latin america, wants to be friendly
NATO
north atlantic treaty organizations, regional defense alliance among west europe, US, can
gunboat diplomacy
use of naval force to assert foreign policy
pragmatism
concept that the US does not always follow morals or guidelines, but what is convenient/easy/rewarding in the end
deterrence
nukes deter others from attacking
pancho villa
carranza in charge, villa was a disaffected general who waged guerrila war along the southwest against US
open door policy
all countries could trade freely in china
rational actor model
allison's concept that leaders strategically think, and take risks when they know they have the advantage
dayton accords
peace agreement between croats, bosnian muslim, serbs that divided lines, NATO took over and put more forces
nazi/soviet nonaggression pact
germ, sovs agree not to attack each other
kellogg/briand pact
forbade war, neg by US, fr in interbellum
winston churchill
british PM during WWII
new world order
bush I's speech, US would lead new era safe for democracy, represents idealism
iraq war
US, coalition attack iraq bc of WMD, overthrow saddam, cant deal with insurgency
new deal
fdrs proposal to fix GD, large natl role in economy, deficit spending
world bank
helped world recover economically from war
state
recognized entity that has monopoly on force within its own borders
american military build up
large draft, materiel buildup in US after declaration
Vietnamization
nixon pulled out US forces, supported south vietnamese
annexation of hawaii
americans overthrew queen, then asked to be part of us
levels of analysis
international, national/domestic, and individual, foreign policy decisions can be understood by analyzing which factor (intl, national, ind) influence decisionmakers choices
root/takahira declaration
us jap agree that pacific is open, recognize e/o territories
G7 industrialized states
largest most economically powerful states, helped russia in early 90s
league of nations
IO designed to keep collective security, failed bc US didnt join, no military
blockade runners
british who ran the union blockade to trade with the south
competing themes of afp
realism/idealism, isolationism/involvement, and multilateralism/unilateralism
hiroshima and nagasaki
jap cities nuked, pwned to end war
institutional fragmentation
belief that the shared power in the US causes fractioning b/c size of govt
panamanian independence
US gave $, guns for independence so US could build a canal
berlin airlift
western planes supplied berliners with all supplies
mutually assured destruction
US, sovs wouldnt attack because both would kill each other
1947 national security act
reorganized executive branch, created DoD and CIA, national security council
French involvement in amrev
fr heavily involved in amrev after battle of saratoga, provided $, military, and most importantly NAVY
panama canal
linked pac, atl, US control important bc could control shipping
tripartite act
germ ital japs agree to mutual defense, aimed at US
lusitania
germ sink ship that was carrying americans, deteriorate germUS relations
antiimperialist league
group of antiimperialists that advocated for isolationism
united nations
IO, collective security, fixed league ofnations problems
growth of american foreign trade
agricultural exports exploded after civil war, britain lowered tariff, making people richer
alfred mahan
naval strategist who advocated for strong navy, friendly ports, coal stations overseas
containment
kennan X article, Us should apply counterpressure to soviet pressure, containing the soviets where they were
monroe doctrine
declared west hem off limits for future colonization
zimmerman telegram
germany proposed alliance w/mexico, UK intercept, US recognize carranza
versailles peace conference
council on post WWI europe, wrote treaty of paris
contras
antisandinista resistance group in nic
strategic resources
vital materials such as oil, copper, etc., all of which can influence a nations foreign policy
7 years war/french and indian war
GB against france in colonies, gb send troops to colonies, have massive war debt so increase taxes
wilsonianism
idealistic world view, oppose imperialism, war, revolution, believe in democracy/democratic peace theory
al qaeda
international terrorist network, fundamentalist
comprehensive test ban treaty
signatory states renounced nuclear tests
spanish/american war
US, spain go to war, US pwns spain, annex flip, PR, cuba
fourteen points
free seas, league of nations, selfdetermination, collective security
mikhail gorbachev
soviet leader, led to reforms, and eventual decline of soviet union
red scare
event in US, everyone scared of commies, reds, wilson deported lots of people, arrested tons, palmer raids
trade relations with japan in 1980s
japan had trade surplus with US
START II
further reduction of nukes (93, ratified later)
Operation Desert Storm
US, allies drive saddam from kuwait but hes still in power b/c fragile intl coalition, domestic support, possible revolts in iraq, and logistics
smoot/hawley tariff
raised US tariffs, prolonged depression
tiananmen square massacre
prodemocracy demonstrators killed in china, brief break in relations but pragmatic bush I reestablish quickly
treaty of portsmouth
US negotiate end to russojap war, treaty gave korea to japs, divide sakhalin, other things that enhance jap
soviet invasion of afghanistan
sovs invade, US fund muslim fighters
weapons of mass destruction
nuclear, chemical, biological weapons
war of 1812
US/UK go to war over impressment, Uk didnt achieve decisive battle, but was successful in burning Dc. ended status quo ante
Joseph Stalin
soviet leader from 30s to 53, wanted west to open 2nd front
samoan crisis
US assert itself in samoa w/germany, take part of it
neutrality patrols
US navy patroled neutral areas, sinking anyone in the area (targeted germ)
mexican punitive expedition
wilson set blackjack pershing to find villa, unsuccessful
german reunification
east, west germ vote to reunify, sovs and europe feared a strong germany, but agreed b/c germ would be under nato
sandinistas
leftists in nicaragua overthrew proUS somoza
separation of powers
power in the US govt is divided amongst the three branches
human rights
inherent rights, not be killed etc.
massive retaliation
US build up nukes to destroy large amounts of sovs
nazi party
hitlers party, came to power in germany in 30s, superior race, wanted revenge for versailles
osama bin laden
saudi millionare, head of AQ
morality
US goes to war when it is "right" or ethical
trade reciprocity/MFN status
US treats traders same way they treat US, mfn status is when US exports to that country gets lowest tariffs
white man's burden
concept that whites had to civilize savages
unilateralism
acting without consulting others
berlin crises
blockade, germany divided officially
democratic peace theory
democracies rarely go to war with other democracies, so if there are more democracies there will be more peace, big clinton thing
porfirio diaz
mexican dictator, brought stability but no rights. allowed for US to own 40% of mexicna lands
venezuela crisis
US, UK get into crisis about venezuelan boundaries in south america
interests
more concrete objectives of foreign policy, national security etc.
violation of neutral rights
GB, germ sink american ships overseas
superpower
larger than great power, able to destroy from anywhere on the globe
roosevelt corollary
US will intervene in west hemisphere
phillippine insurrection
flips wage guerrilla war against US, lots of people died
power
anything that allows one state to maintain dominance over others
missions
fundamental longterm objectives a country claims to pursue in its foreign policy
atlantic charter
US/UK war objectives
VI lenin
led bolshevik revolution in russia, overthrew kerensky
isolationism
staying out of other nations affairs
boxer rebellion
secret chinese society that tried to overthrow westerners in china
lend/lease act
US could sell arms to britain, or anyone prez deemed OK
Mao Zedong
chinese communist, took over in 1949 in china
groupthink
members conform to group expectations, essentially become yesmen
rome/berlin axis
italy/german alliance in 1936
unrestricted submarine warfare
germ declare it would sink any ship near britain basically pushed US to war
platt amendment
US congress can nullify any cuban treaty
appeasement
concept at munich, hitler appeased
Nixon's grand strategy
detente, peace w/china, withdraw from nam
1778 treaty with france
US, france sign alliance, france recognize USA
principles
beliefs and premises that underlie a countries' foreign policy
neutrality proclamation
washington proclaim US is neutral in GB/france conflict
geopolitics
aspect of foreign policy influenced by geographic details of states
pearl harbor
japs attack dec 7 1941
UN earth summit
bush I rejected most proposals from this summit bc thought jobs were more important
international criminal court
US opt out of court bc of fears that servicemen will be harassed
Vietnam
country in southeast asia, US send advisors for long time then military, bogged down in quagmire, nixon withdrew with vietnamization, tonkin gulf led to this
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
lowered tariffs between 18 asian countries and US
Haitian crisis
military coup in haiti, US sent forces to put down coup,
mexican-american war
US invade, occupy mexico city, take lots of land in the east (after polk draws mexico into it)
east/west conflict
one group allied w/US against other group w/Sovs
summit meeting
ike, krush met in geneva to improve relations
Trent Affair
US captures confed diplomats trying to go to britain, britain offers them a way out
selfdetermination
countries should be allowed to set up their own democratically elected government
washington's farewell address
told US to steer clear of entangling alliances with world
berlin blockade
sovs cut off west access to divided city and tried to prevent new currency
selfdelusion
how policymaker perceived reality can be different from actual reality
US naval buildup
after civil war, congress continued to authorize battleships
taliban
fundamentalist govt in afg that took over in 1990s, held bin laden
Somalia
civil war, Bush I sent troops, clinton didnt pull out, US forces killed, pulled out
neorealism
expand realism to stronger levels of international analysis
grand alliance
US sovs GB, Us gives guns, $ to sovs,gb
japanese invasion of manchuria
japan invade northern china to expand
Korean War
UN allow US to fight NK w.SK, drive too far, china comes in, pwns US... status quo
barbary war
pasha of tripoli preyed upon american ships, jefferson sent marine corps and bombarded berbers
third world
former colonies, underdeveloped
NAFTA
"free" trade agreement, eliminate tariffs between can, mex, US, active in 1994
Olney memorandum
essentially states US has sovereignty over all of americas, led to venezuela crisis
embargo act
jeff didn't allow for US ships to trade with foreign countries w/o permission, esp gb/france. devastated economy, impressment continued
kyoto protocol
US agree to various greenhouse reductions under clinton, then go back under bush II
invasion of veracruz
US sent marine corps to veracruz to support antihuerta forces
Nixon doctrine
US would expect allies to take care of their own defense
domino theory
if one country falls to communism, its neighbors will as well. Used as part of justification to intervene in Southeast asia.
Ostend Manifesto
if spain rejects US $ offer for cuba, US should take it by force
roleplaying
affects policy when policymaker holds an office that causes them to advocate and implement views traditional to that office (similar to allison's governmental politics model)
Reagan doctrine
roll back soviet expansion in 3rd world
roaring 20s
successful time in 1920s where lots of $, everyone rich
personality traits
some policymakers are more passive, aggressive, etc.. affects decisionmaking
1783 treaty of paris
ends revwar, GB recognize US

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