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Battle of Coral Sea
May 1942. Americans prevent Japan from invading Australia
Four Power Treaty
"US, Britain, Japan, France. Agreed to respect each other's possessions in the Pacific"
Atlantic Charter
"August 1941. Roosevelt and Churchill met in Canada, Endorsed by 11 non-Axis nations including Soviet Union. Based on Wilson's 14 points"
Germany and Hitler
"1933. Persecuted socialists and Jews. Violated treaty of Versailles, built up armaments. Germany left League of Nations, 1933. Hitler announced goal of unifying all German speaking people."
December 1940 Inauguration Speech
FDR Arsenal of Democracy. Willing to supply arms and war materials to anyone who was defending democracy.
Washington Armaments Conference (1921-1922)
"Five Power Treaty, Four Power Treaty, Nine Power Treaty"
Five Power Treaty
"US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy. Tonnage limits on navies, no further fortification of possessions in the Pacific, 10 year moratorium on building in the Pacific"
Lend Lease Bill March 1941
"Lend, lease or sell goods to any country whose defense was critical to the US. Help Britain and China"
D Day June 6 1944
Operation Overlord. Largest Amphibian Attack in history. Cross channel attack England into France over 5 beaches along 60 mile stretch of coast in Normandy.
Supreme Allied Commander
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American commanders in Pacific
"General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz, two different routes to Japan. Both plans implemented"
Pearl Harbor
"2400 Americans killed, 8 battleships sunk or severely damaged, 180 airplanes destroyed. US declares war Dec 8, Dec 11 Germans declare war on us, Dec 11 US declares on Germany and Italy. Hitler not happy with Japan"
How to end the war?
"Truman made decision to use atomic bomb - two dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan had no choice but to surrender. Formally surrendered in Sept 1945. 50-70 million people died."
WWII in Europe
"Spring 1940 - German Blitzkreig (lightning war). Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, France all fell. Dunkirk - British evacuation from France 338,000 troops evacuated rather than fall to Germans. Germans took France as result"
Battle of Guadalcanal in Solomon Islands
August 1942. First time American ground troops fought Japan ground troops. Intense. US wins
Problems in Pacific
"Japan and US clash over Japan occupation of China. October 15 Tojo becomes prime minister, war party now in power. Dec 7, Japs attack Pearl Harbor (to cripple US before war)."
Threats of War 1930s
"Japan, Mussolini, Hitler."
After securing Normandy beaches...
"Allied supplies poured in (great for US economy). By late 1944 allies ready to go to Germany. By early 1945, invaded by US, Brit, Canada from west and Soviet Union from East."
Japan threat of war
"Japan invades Manchuria, 1931. US and League of Nations chose to do nothing. 1933 League of Nations condemned Japan. Japan to withdraw from League. 1937 Japanese and Chinese troops clashed near Beijing, Beginning of WWII in Asia"
Hitler occupations leading to WWII in Europe
"Rhineland, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, invade Poland, Britain and France declare war."
Germans Invade Russia.
June 1941. Major mistake by Hitler. Broke 1939 treaty with Russia
Allied Strategy
"Conquer North Africa, Sicily, then Italy. Italy didn't formally surrender until June 1944."
Battle of Midway
June 1942. Japan planning another Pearl Harbor attack. Americans stop Japs at Midway. Sink 4 Jap aircraft carriers. Turning point of Pacific war
"V-E Day, Victory in Europe"
Nine Power Treaty
"China, Belgium, Portugal, Netherlands. No carving up of China - recognition of Open Door Policy of McKinley"
Kellogg-Briand Pack 1928
"Frank B. Kellogg, US Sec of State. Aristide Briand - French Foreign Minister. Signature nations renounce war as instrument of national policy"
1940 Election in US
FDR elected to 3rd term - the war had transformed FDR from having been stalemated in 2nd term to aggressive defender of democracy in 3rd.
Italy and Benito Mussolini 1922
"prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda. Mussolini became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler, whom he influenced. Mussolini entered World War II in June, 1940 on the side of Nazi Germany. Three years later, the Allies invaded Italy. In April 1945 Mussolini attempted to escape to German-controlled Austria, only to be captured and killed near Lake Como by Communist Resistance units."
American Neutrality laws
1935 - forbade sale of arms and munitions to all warring nations - any American traveling on belligerents' ships did so at their own risk. 1939 Cash and carry act. Banned American ships from entering ports of warring countires. Countries paying cash could send ships - designed to aid England
Charles Evens Hughes
Secretary of state for Harding (At Washington Armaments Conf.)
Hitler and FDR death
"Hitler committed suicide April 30, 1945. FDR died April 12."

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