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AP WH 20-22


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Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter of Renaissance times (1452-1519); relied on the technique of linear perspective to represent the three dimensions of real life on flat, two-dimensional surfaces.
Mnemonic devise used by Inca bureaucrats to keep track of their responsibilities; consisted of an array of small cords of various colors and lengths, all suspended from one large, thick cord; knots and marks on cords could record statistical information or historical events.
Alfonso d'Alboquerque
Commander of Portuguese forces in the Indian Ocean responsible for Portuguese hegemony in the region.
Christopher Columbus
Genoese mariner; crossed the Atlantic Ocean and sailed to the Bahamas in 1492, with his voyage sponsored by the Catholic Kings of Spain.
Catholic Kings
Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile, whose marriage in 1469 united the two wealthiest and most important Iberian realms and strengthened the state of Spain. The Catholic kings conquered the Islamic kingdom of Granada, established hegemony throughout most of the Italian peninsula, and sponsored Christopher Columbus's voyages.
A god of Mesoamerica, honored for his support of arts, crafts, and agriculture.
volta do mar
The strategy employed by mariners in their return journeys, avoiding sailing against slow and perilous trade winds
Capital city of Inca empire, served as administrative, religious, and ceremonial center; population might have reached 300,000 in the late 15th century.
Seven Years' War
Global conflict (1756-1763) that included Asians, indigenous American people and Europeans. Sometimes called the "Great War for Empire", it laid the foundations for British hegemony in the world.
People of central Mexico; spoke Nahuatl language; became dominant power of the region between 950 and 1150 C.E.
Renaissance painter of Italy, lived from 1401-1428.
Italian sculptor of Renaissance times; lived from 1386 to 1466
Michelangelo Buonarotti
Famous Italian sculptor of Renaissance times; lived from 1475 to 1564.
War god of Aztecs; responsible for Aztecs' growing enthusiasm with human sacrifice.
Rabban Sauma
Nestorian Christian priest of Turkish ancestry; dispatched in 1287 by the Mongol ilkhan of Persia as an envoy to the pope and European political leaders for seeking support; mission did not succeed.
Woodlands people who lived in what is now up-state New York; five groups of Iroquois peoples emerged from Owasco society by about 1400 C.E.
Captain James Cook
Led three expeditions to the Pacific. Cook charted eastern Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands and Arctic waters as well as collecting ethnographic materials about the lands and peoples he encountered.
Capital city of Chimu, near the modern city of Trujillo; had 50,000 to 100,000 residents during the late 14th century.
One of several infectious and contagious virgin soil diseases that ravaged the populations of the Americas due to their lack of exposure and immunity. These diseases were responsible for reducing indigenous populations of the Americas by ninety-five percent.
"The Smoking Mirror;" a god of Mesoamericans; honored for his power of giving and taking lives of people.
Zheng He
Eunuch of the Ming court; led seven grand naval expeditions between 1405 and 1433; presented Chinese naval power to important port cities in the Indian Ocean basin.
Ceremonial precinct and temple structure of early Pacific societies; often had several terraced floors with a rock or coral wall designating the boundaries of the sacred space; largest one was marae Mahaiatea on Tahiti, which was constructed in the form of a step pyramid.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese mariner; took the first voyage around the tip of Africa to India in 1497
Inca empire
Largest empire ever built in South America; territory extended 2,500 miles from north to south and embraced almost all of modern Peru, most of Ecuador, much of Bolivia, and parts of Chile and Argentina; maintained effective control from the early 15th century until the coming of Europeans in the early 16th century.
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
Spanish commander who seized control of the Philippines in 1565.
Capital city of the Aztec empire, sitting on an island in Lake Texcoco; at its high point in the early 16th century, tribute from some 489 subject territories flowed into the city, and its population reached to about two hundred thousand.
Complete voyage around the world, beginning at a specific point and ending at the same point. Magellan completed the first circumnavigation of the world.
Inti and Viracocha
Inca gods; Inti was the sun god while Viracocha was the creator god; cult of sun or Inti was the most popular among Incas.
The indigenous residents of the Bahamas. Columbus mistook these people for inhabitants of India and erroneously named them "Indians."
Francesco Petrarca
Florentine humanist (1304-1374); worked diligently in searching for classical works of ancient Greek and Roman authors throughout Europe.
A simplified version of an instrument used by Greek and Persian astronomers to determine latitude by measuring the angle of the sun or the pole star above the horizon.
Woodlands people east of the Mississippi River; lived in settled communities dominated by women; also known for their buildings of enormous earthen mounds.
wind wheels
Strong wind patterns in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, north and south of the equator, used by mariners to direct voyages.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Famous Italian architect (1377-1446) of Renaissance times; responsible for the construction of a magnificent dome on the cathedral of Florence during the 1420s and 1430s.
joint stock companies
Companies funded by private merchants, providing funds for ships, crews and supplies. These private merchants would also provide merchants with commodities and money to trade.
Motecuzoma I
successor of Itzcóatl; powerful ruler of the Aztec empire; successful conquests from 1440 to 1469 laid down territorial foundation for the Aztec empire.
magnetic compass
A Chinese invention of the Tang or Song dynasty that had diffused throughout the Indian Ocean basin in the eleventh century.
Cahokia Mound
Enormous earthen mound at Cahokia near East St. Louis, Illinois; built by Iroquois people for ceremonies or ritual performance.
Aztec empire
Like the Inca Empire in South America, this complex empire in Mesoamerica was ravaged by the effects of biological and cultural invasions.
Powerful kingdom of Andean South America in the lowlands; dominated the Peruvian coast for about a century before the arrival of the Incas in the mid-15th century.
Portuguese trading port in India
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam
Famous humanist of Renaissance times; worked diligently to prepare accurate texts and translations of the New Testament and other important Christian writings; responsible for publishing the first edition of the Greek new Testament in 1516.
Ming dynasty
Chinese dynasty after the Mongols' Yuan dynasty, established by the Hongwu emperor in 1368. Government became even more centralized under the Ming than before and returned to reliance on a Confucian-trained civil service.
Also known as Aztecs; people of central Mexico; spoke Nahuatl language; built powerful Aztec empire that dominated Mesoamerica during the period from the mid-14th through the early 16th centuries.
Prince Henrique
Often called Prince Henry the Navigator, prince of Portugal, responsible for seizing the Moroccan city of Ceuta in 1415; adopted policy of encouraging Christian expansion and exploration of commercial opportunities overseas.
Capital city of Toltec empire, about thirty miles northwest of modern Mexico City; important center of weaving, pottery, and obsidian work.
Sao Jorge da Mina
Fortified Portuguese trading post on the coast of west Africa (in modern Ghana).
Ali'i nui
High chiefs of Hawai'i; powerful rulers who commanded enormous respect within their societies.
Columbian exchange
Global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens that took place after voyages of exploration by Columbus.
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese mariner; sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in 1488; proved to Europeans that it was possible to sail from Europe to the Indian Ocean.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant (1253-1324) who traveled to China while it was under Mongol rule; met Khubilai Khan and undertook many diplomatic missions for the Mongol government. His stories of travel circulated widely throughout Europe and deeply influenced Europeans' desire for exploring Chinese markets.
Inca ruler, responsible for military conquests that laid foundation of Inca empire; reigned from 1438 to 1471.

Ferdinand Magellan
Explored the Pacific and circumnavigated the world in the service of Spain (1519-1522).

Pueblo and Navajo
Peoples of southwestern North America; lived in settled societies with large populations.
trading-post empires
A series of fortified trade posts established by Dutch, French, Portuguese, English and Spanish to command hegemony over large coastal areas.
"The Obsidian Serpent," founder of Aztec empire; launched successful campaigns of imperial expansion from 1428 to 1440.
Yongle Encyclopedia
Enormous anthology compiled by Ming scholars and sponsored by the Yongle emperor. It contained all significant works of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature, and ran to about 23,000 manuscript rolls, each equivalent to a medium-sized book.
Kingdom of Andean America, dominated highlands region around Lake Titicaca (the broad region of modern Peru and Bolivia) between the 13th and early 15th centuries.
Cultural flowering of western Europe from the 14th through the 16th centuries. Arts and scholarly works reflected a revived interest in the classics of ancient Greece and Rome and a growing concern for individualism and secularism.
Small plots of land made by the Mexica by dredging the rich and fertile mulch from the bottom of Lake Texcoco.
cross staffs
Instruments used by mariners to measure the angle of the sun or the pole star above the horizon and determine latitude.
Most powerful people of Andean America; established Inca empire in the early 15th century that dominated Andean society until the coming of Europeans; spoke Quechua language.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish military commander responsible for sighting the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
John of Montecorvino
Italian Franciscan, went to China in 1291; became the first archbishop of Khanbaliq (Beijing) in 1307; baptized some six thousand individuals in China; translated the New Testament into Turkish; died in 1328.
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Established Batavia on the island of Java in 1619 as entrepot for the VOC, a strategic site for the Dutch trading empire.
Ibn Battuta
Muslim scholar of Morocco; world traveler of the 14th century; served as a qadi (judge) in north India and the Maldive Islands; lived between 1304 and 1369.
trade winds
Strong wind patterns blowing from the northeast that complicated travel and forced mariners to take indirect routes.
Founder of the Ming dynasty in China; an orphaned beggar who rose to power by joining rebellions against Mongol rule in China; toppled Mongol rule and proclaimed himself emperor in 1368; reestablished the Confucian educational and civil service systems.
Taboos of Hawaiian people, which included such restrictions on common people as approaching or casting a shadow on the ali'i nui (high chiefs), and eating good food or wearing magnificent cloaks preserved for ali'i nui.

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