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World History Chapter 24


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Chief pillars supporting the optimistic and rationalistic view of the world
science in the 19 c.
____ offered ______ that was comforting to many people for whom traditioonal belefs no longer had much meaning.
science, certainty of belief in the ordiliness of nature
____ - viewed as a giant machine in which time, space, and matter were objective realities that existed independently of people observing them
Conception of the universe in the 19 c.
French scientist who discovered that the element Radium gave rays of radiation that apparentely came fron within the atom itself
Marie Curie
German scientist who built on Curie's work, rejected the belief that a heated body radiates energy in a steady stream but maintained instead that energy is radiated discontinuously in irregular packets that he called quanta.
What is this theory called?
Max Planck
Quantum Theory
German scientist who wrote "The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" in 1905.
What did this contain?
Albert Einstein
Relatvity Theory
____ - each particle of matter is equivalent to its mass times the square of the velocity of light

Epochal formula (E=mc^2)
two things that led to the atomic age?
Relativity theory and Epochal formula
Relativity Theory
____ and ____ are not absolute but relative to the ____, and both are interwoven into what Einstein called a ____ ____. Neither time nor space had an existence independent of ____. ____ and ____ reflect the relativity of time and spa
TIME and SPACE are not absolute but relative to the OBSERVER, and both are interwoven into what Einstein called a FOUR-DIMENSIONAL SPACE-TIME CONTINUUM. Neither time nor space had an existence independent of HUMAN EXPERIENCE. MATTER and ENERGY reflect the relativity of time and space.
Friedrich Nietzsche
glorified the irrational, believed reason was actually played little role in human life because humans were at the mercy of irrational life forces
"I call Christianity ine great curse, the one enormous and innermost perversion." - ____
Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich believed "____ had taken the side of everything weak and ill-constituted" and was a ____

"One loses ____ when one ____"

religion of pity
"One loses FORCE when one PITIES."

superior intellectuals must do what three things?
a higher kind of being
1. free themsleves from the ordinary thinking of the masses
2. create their own values
3. lead the masses

Friedrich Nietzsche condemned what three things?
1. political democracy
2. social reform
3. universal suffrage

____ was one of the most important influences in French thought in the early 20 c.
accepted ____ as a practical instrument for providing useful knowledge, but maintained that it was incapable of reaching ____ or ____.
He believed what about reality
Henri Bergson
rationl, scientific thought

Reality was a whole that could only be grasped intuitively and experienced directly

____ combined Bergson's and Nietzsche's ideas with his own interest in ____.
Recommended the use of the ____.
Came to believe that the new socialist society would have to governed by a ____, because the masses were ____.

George Sorgi
Revolutionary socialism
general strike
small elite ruling body
incapable of ruling themselves

_____ put forth a series of theories that undermined optimism about the rational nature of the human mind.
_____ - 1900, contained what?
Sigmund Freund
"The Interpretation of Dreams"
contained the basic foundation for psychoanalysis

Role of the Unconscious
1. ____ strongly determined by this
2. ____ and ____ used to explore content of the unconscious
3. human beings' inner life was a battleground of 3 contending forces: ____, ____, ____

1. Human behavior
2. hypnosis and dreams
3. id, ego, superego


ID - central of the unconscious, drives and was ruled by the pleasure principle
EGO - seat of reason, coordinator of inner life
SUPEREGO - locus of conscience and represented moral values

____ - the application of Darwin's principle of organic evolution to the social order

____ - most popular exponent of this, wrote ____ in 1896, Believed ____ should not intervene in this natural process

Social Darminism
Herbert Spenser
"Social Statics"
the State

____ of the late 19 c. were hostile to established Christian Churches
Churches were excluded from ____.
____ - produced by the close union of State authorities and established churches.

Political movements
urban social life

____ was the chief threat of churches.
____ - by ____, questioned historical accuracy of the Bible and presented a radically different picture of Jesus
"Life of Jesus" by RENAN
Responces of the Catholic Church:
1. _____
2. Compromise, by Pope Leo in 1891, _____ which upheld ____ but criticized ____

1. Outright rejection of modern ideas and forces
2. Compromise, by Pope Leo in 1891, "DE RERUM NOVARUM which upheld INDIVIDUAL RIGHT TO PRIVATE PROPERTY but criticized CAPITALISM
_____: the changes the writers and artists produced by rebelling against traditional literary and artistic styles the had dominated since the Renaissance.
19 c. -
20 c. -


Emile Zola - ____
Leo Tolstoy - ____
Dostoevsky - ____ and ____

"War and Peace"
"Crime and Punishment" and "The Brothers Karamazov"

____ - against realism, mostly ____, believed the ____ was not real but only a collection of ____ that reflected the true reality of the ____.
SYMBOLISM - against realism, mostly POETRY, believed the EXTERNAL WORLD was not real but only a collection of SYMBOLS that reflected the true reality of the INDIVIDUAL HUMAN MIND.
In Art, artists tried to ____
represent reality as accurately as possible
____ was the preamble to modern art, originated where and when?
____ sought to capture interplay of lights, water, and atmosphere, painted ____.
____ broke the practice of women only being amateur painters by becoming a profesional, painted ____.
Impressionism, France, 1870s
Claude Monet, "Impression, Sunrise"
Berthe Morisot, "Young Girl by the Window"

____, by 1880s, arose in France
Retained emphasis on ____ and ____, but revolutionized it even further by paying more attention to ____ and ____.

light and color, structure and form

Post-Impressionism shifted from ____ to ____, and began to withdraw from artists' traditional taste of ____.


OBJECTIVE REALITY to SUBJECTIVE REALITY, depicting the external world

Van Gogh - "Starry Night"
Paul Cezanne - "Woman with Coffee Pot"

____ used geomtric designs as a visual stimuli to re-create reality in viewer's mind.

First of this kind?
Abstract painting?

Picasso's "Les Demoiselles d'Avognon"
Wassily Kandinsky - "Square with White Border"

____ stressed elusive moods and haunting sensationd and is distinct in its delcate beauty and elegance
most famous work?
"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun"
____ came to a stop after 1894 ____ opened the door to changes that many ____ found unacceptable 1830s - reform movements for ____
Political Democracy
Mass politics, liberals
Women's Rights

in 19 c. ____ were increasingly granted legal equality in Europe
after 1848, ____ became a fact of life.
____ were forced to adopt significant social reforms due to the pressure ot two new working class organizations:____ and ____.

Workers struck for ____

Liberals, trade unions and the Labour Party
minimum wage and other benefits
In Germany:
William II was what kind of emperor?
____ led to an even greater expansion of ____.
Tensions created by conflict between ____ and ____ were manifest in ____.

unstable and aggresive
Growth of industrialism, Social Demmocratic Party
Tensions created by conflict between MODERNIZATION and TRADITIONALISM were manifest in NEW, RADICALIZED RIGHT-WING POLITICS.

In Russia:
____ saw industrial growth as crucial to ____.
____ thought and parties were developed.
Revolution of 1905 was a ____, in opposition to ____, and the ____ wanted a liberal political system.

Sergei White, Russia's national strength
Revolution of 1905 was a FAILURE, in opposition to TSARIST REGIME, and the MIDDLE CLASS wanted a liberal political system.

New Imperialism?
Causes? (three)

European states embarking on an intense scramble for overseas territory in the 1880s
1. Competitive nation states
2. colonies were a source of international prestige
3. patriotic fervor

New Imperialism Continued:
How did Social Darwinism play a role?
Religious influence?
Economic Causes? (two)

believed superior race must dominate inferior by military force to show how strong they are.
Missionaries went abroad to seek converts to their faith
1. great demand for natural resources and products (rubber, oil, tin)
2. investors wanted direct control of areas where raw materials were found

British Imperialism:
availability of ____ and the discovery of ____ in Australia led to an influx of settlers.
____ dominated India until ____ when power was transferred to London
in 1842, Great Britain obtained ____ and ____

land for grazing sheep, gold
British East India Company, 1858
Hong Kong and tading rights with China

____ avoided western intrusion until ____, when ____ forced them to give ____ trading rights
Commodore Matthew Perry

____ fell to the Americans during this time
The Pacific Islands (including Philippines and Hawaiin Islands)
Results of Imperialism?
Almost all of Asia and Africa were under colonial rule or at the point of collapse.
Only Japan avoided this, due to strategy of political and economis reform
Before ____, there were fifty years of peace in Europe
Bismark's Alliances:

With Russia and Austria-Hungary
With Austria
With Italy

____ initiated a chain of events that eventually spun out of control
In 1809, Austria annexed ____ and ____.
____ was outraged by this.
Russians supported _____

Crisis in the Balkans
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Serbs

in 1912, ____ was organized and defeated the ____
1913? - created what?
Balkan League, Ottomans
Second Balkan War
more tension among great powers

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