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Final Exam Review


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notable aspect of collective luminality; an intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, quality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experiencing liminality together.
Weakest structural position in the world system.
Movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, and children) and their animals; more generally, such a constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources (trade with farmers).
Collateral relatives
A genealogical relative who is not in ego's direct line, such as B, Z, FB, or MB.
Class stratification
Industrialization mastered the process of proletarianization - the separation of workers from the means of production, now world-wide. 3 dimensions of social stratification: wealth (economic status), power (political status), prestige (social status).
behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders.
marriage to more than one spouse at the same time. Polygyny and polyandry.
a gift from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin before, at, or after marriage; legitimizes the children born to the woman as members of the husband's descent group. (Africa)
Political systems
band, tribe, chiefdom, state; means of social control. Contains either informal/temporary leaders with limited local authority or strong/permanent leaders(institutions) that prevail over entire regions.
Sociopolitical organization based on a central, autonomous government and socioeconomic stratification - a division of society into classes. Examples - Modern U.S., Canada, and Egypt.
An economic and social system based on the development of large-scale industries and marked by the production of large quantities of inexpensive manufactured goods and the concentration of employment in urban factories. Industrial production; factory production and capitalism, socialist production.
Unilineal descent
the descent rule use on line only, either the male or female line.
Examples of 2nd wave of colonialism
British and French empire had colonies in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and new world.
Wallace's four types of religion
1) shamanic religions, 2) communal religions, 3) Olympian religions, and 4) monotheistic religions.
What economic development provides core nations
Organic developments and progress; industrialization increases production and income in core nations.
What economic development provides developing nations
Development can attack local cultural patterns. As nations become more tied to the world capitalism economy, native forms of social organization will break down in to nuclear family organization, impersonality, and alienation. Can threaten indigenous peoples and their ecosystems.
Explanations of incest taboo
1) It codifies instinctive horror of incest, 2) it expresses concern about the biological effect of incestuous unions, 3) it reflects feelings of attraction or aversion that develop as one grows up in a household, and 4) it has an adaptive advantage because it promotes exogamy, thereby increasing networks of friends and allies.
Generational kinship terminology
kinship terminology with only two terms for the parental generation, one designating M, MZ, and FZ and the other designating F, FB, and MB.
Genealogical kin type
actual genealogical relationship (i.e. father's brother)
Examples of rites of passage
confirmations, baptisms, bar and bat mitzvahs, and fraternity hazing.
Moiety (half)
Descent bifurcates the community so that everyone belongs either to one half or the other.
Olympian religions
develop with the state organization; have full-time religious specialists - professional priesthoods.
no more than on spouse legally (at the same time).
Cuban religion - example of religious syncretism in the mixture of African, Native American, and Roman Catholic saints and deities in Caribbean "voodoo" cults.
the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time.
Neolocal Residence
postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either sets of parents.
Belief in souls or doubles.
policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over other nations.
Bifurcate merging kinship terminology
(merging) merging parent and same sex symbol.
Home production
domestic system of manufacture. Organizer-entrepreneur supplied the raw materials to workers in their homes and collected the finished projects from them. Organizer-entrepreneur owned materials, paid for the work, and arranged the marketing.
Capitalist world system
global system in which nations are economically and politically interdependent.
Examples of 1st wave of colonialism
Portugal colonized Brazil; Spain colonized Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South America.
Liminality (Margin)
Second stage of rites of passage. The critically important "in-between" phase of a rite of passage. The people are cut off from normal social contacts and have ambiguous social positions.
Rule or practice of marriage between people of the same social group.
A population's system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources.
Food-production strategy based on care of herds of domesticated animals, use of animals for food. Hunting, gathering, fishing, cultivation, or trading. Mixed economics. Confined mostly to the old world. Nomadic and transhumance.
wealth or resources invested in business, with the intent of using the means of production to produce a profit.
Hunter-gatherers. Ties of kinship and marriage link members of these bands, whose men usually hunt and fish, while the women usually gather. People who subsist by hunting, gathering, and fishing often live in band-organized societies, related by kinship or marriage.
based on stipulated descent. Members say they descend from the apical ancestor; don't try to trace the genealogical links between themselves and the ancestor.
variety of plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband. (Tibet, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and India)
supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims.
Set apart as sacred and off-limits to ordinary people; prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions.
Ghost dance
classic example of revitalization movement.
cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production - land, labor, capital, and machinery. It uses simple tools such as digging sticks and hoes. Uses slash-and-burn techniques.
cultivation that requires more labor because it uses land intensively and continuously. Use of domesticated animals for transport, cultivating machines, and manure. Use of irrigation and terracing.
Patrilineal descent
people automatically have lifetime membership in the father's group.
belief in multiple gods
Shamanic religion
The shaman is a part-time religious practitioner who mediates between ordinary people and supernatural beings and forces.
Affinal relatives
by marriage, whether or lineal (i.e. son's wife) or collaterals (i.e. sister's husband)
a continuation marriage that maintains the alliance between descent groups, in this class by replacing the husband with another member of this group. Widow marries the brother of her deceased husband.
Revitalization movements
Movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society.
Descent group
permanent social units whose members say they have ancestors in common. Determined at birth and is life-long.
sacred, impersonal force existing in the universe; may reside in people, animal, plants, and objects. Found in Melanesian and Polynesian religions.
Communal religions
Lack full-time religious specialists and believe in several deities who control aspects of nature. They also have communal cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage.
Parallel cousins
children of two brothers or two sisters. Same sex of related parent; same group. Always belong to you (ego's) moiety.
Apical ancestor
person who is the oldest person you can trace everyone back to. In lineages you can, in clans you can't.
One of two variants of pastoralism part of the population moves seasonally with the herds, while the other part remains in home villages.
E.B. Taylor
He believed animism to be religion's earliest and most basic form; religion would eventually disappear as science provided better explanations.
Marital exchange in which the wife's group provides substantial gits to the husband's family. (India)
Consequences of WCS on indigenous groups
Indigenous groups have become ethnic minorities once incorporated into nation states. Some survive and maintain their ethnic identity despite having lost their ancestral cultures to varying degrees (partial ethnocide). Can and have lived on as culturally distinct and self-conscious colonized people (who sometimes aspire autonomy).
Mode of production
Way of organizing productions. A set of relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge.
the ability to exercise one's will over others to do what one wants; the basis of political status.
Development anthropology
branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and cultural dimension of, economic development.
Types of marriage
Monogamy, same-sex, and plural.
Industrial revolution
the historic transformation (in Europe after 1750) of "traditional" into "modern" societies through industrialization of the economy.
Closed class system
based on hereditary systems of stratification (caste systems and slavery)
Secular rituals
include formal, invariant, stereotypes, earnest, repetitive behavior and rites of passage that take place in nonreligious settings.
Means of production
Land, labor, technology, and capital major productive resources.
Nuclear family
a married couple and their children, living together. Extended family or descent groups may overshadow, complement, or replace a nuclear family.
usually justified by the idea that industrialization and modernization are desirable evolutionary advances.
Custom by which a widower married the sister of his deceased wife.
Three positions of CWE
core, semi-periphery, and periphery.
Adaptive strategies
group's system of economic production. In non-industrial societies, it is usually based on food production.
Plural marriages
Encompasses means and mode of production.
Factory production
machinery replaced handwork, producing cheap staple goods and increased production. Fueled urban growth and created new kinds of cities with factories where resources and labor was cheap. Agrarian societies turned into industrialized societies.
Kin terms
reflect the social construction of kinship in a given culture. (i.e. uncle, as opposed to father's brother)
Matrilineal descent
people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life. Only children of group's women.
Ambilineal descent
principle of descent that does not automatically exclude the children of either sons or daughters.
Patrilocal/Virilocal Residence
customary residence with the husband's relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their father's community.
Matrilocal/Uxorilocal Residence
customary residence with the wife's relative after marriage, so that the children grow up in their mother's community.
Kuikuru; South America. 150 people in same village for 90 yrs
Example of horticulture society
Rites of passage
culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another. Can mark any change in place, condition, social position, and age. Has 3 stages.
Basic unit of social organization among foragers, includes fewer than 100 people. Nomadic, small, mobile, kin-based groups with little differential power. Neolocal residence. minimal division of labor and gender stratification. Shamanic religions. Primus entre pares. Example -: Eskimos, Tiwi, Washo, Kung.
1st wave of colonialism
1492 to 1825.
Cross cousins
children of a brother or sister. Opposite sex of related parent; ideal marriage partner in parental generation. Always members of the opposite moiety.
Aspects of Globalism
1) movement of people - transnationalism, 2) the multinational corporation, 3) the global government, 4) cultural imperialism, 5) a world system of images, and 6) the transnational culture of consumption.
2nd wave of colonialism
1850 - 1950
Incorporation (Reintegration)
they reenter society, having completed the rite.
Marriage obligations
bridewealth, dowry, levirate, and sororate.
Belief in a single, all-powerful deity.
scheduling planting in advance in accordance to the rainy season.
Form of sociopolitical organization, usually based on horticulture or pastoralism; villages, and/or descent groups but lack a formal government. Socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent and there's no means of enforcing political decisions. Communal religions, headman and big man. Examples - Yanomami, Iroquois. Pastoralism examples - Yakamadzai and Nuer.
belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces.
Bifurcate collateral kinship terminology
(lumping) distinguishing for different kin terms. Employing separate terms.
Cultural imperialism
spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or imposition on other cultures which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.
Structural position in the world system intermediate between core and periphery.
Pan-tribal sodalities(societies/associations)
a non-kin-based group that exists throughout a tribe, spanning several villages. They are often based on common age or gender. Important in general military mobilization and regional political organizations.
variety of plural marriage in which a man has more than one wife. (Kanuri in Nigeria)
cutting into hills to build stages of terraced fields.
The practice of seeking a husband or wife outside one's one group.
Functions of religion
it plays an explanatory role, offers comfort and psychological security at times of crisis, helps the adaptation of human populations to their environment, and establishes and maintains social control through a series of moral/ethical beliefs and real/imagined rewards and punishments.
5 types of adaptive strategies
Horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, industrialism, and foraging.
Monotheistic religions
Also have priesthoods and notions of divine power, but all supernatural phenomena are manifestations of (or under the control of) a single eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being.
Three phases of rites of passage
separations, liminality, and incorporation.
Sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and state; kin-based, differential access to resources and permanent political structure. Full-time priesthood and may be hereditary - Olympian or monotheistic religions. Examples - Polynesia, Mesopotamia, and ancient Egypt.
Open class system
stratification system that facilitates social mobility, with individual achievement and personal merit determining social rank.
Slash-and-burn techniques
used in horticulture. Clears land by cutting and burning forest of bush. The vegetation is cleared, pests are killed, and soil is fertilized by ash. The use of plot isn't continuous, thus it is a shifting cultivation.
Can be animals, plants, or any geographical features. Tied to an apical ancestor in clan organizations. They use nature as a model for society, organizing and maintaining ecological balance. The unity of social orders is enhanced by the symbolic association with and imitation of the natural order.
Capitalist world economy
The single world system, which emerged in the 16th century, committed to production for sale, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs. Based on 3 positions.
Functions of marriage (Leach)
1) Establish the legal father of a woman's children and the legal mother of a man's, 2) give either or both spouses a monopoly in the sexuality of the other, 3) give either or both spouses rights to the labor of the other, 4) give either or both spouses rights over the other's property, 5) establish a joint fund of property - a partnership - for the benefit of the children, and 6) establish socially significant "relationship of affinity" between spouses and their relatives.
demonstrated descent. Members can recite the name pf their forebears in each generation from the apical ancestor through the present.
Kin groups (such as families and descent groups)
Social units whose members can be identified and whose residence patterns and activities can be observed.
people withdraw from the group and begin moving from one place or status to another.
Lineal relatives
any of the ego's ancestors or descendants (i.e. parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren) on the direct line of descent that leads to and from the ego.
Dominant structural position in the world system; consists of the strongest and most powerful states with advanced systems of production.
Bilateral kinship calculation
a system in which kinship ties are calculated equally through both sexes; mother and father, sister and brother, daughter and son, and so on.
Cargo cults
Postcolonial, acculturative religious movements (common in Melanesia), that attempt to explain European domination and wealth and to achieve similar success magically by mimicking European behavior.

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