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Unit one and two vocab

Terms

undefined, object
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loose construction
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
fugitive slave act
of 1850 made it much easier to capture runaway slaves and includes much harsher punishment
emancipation proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Dred Scott Decision
Landmark court decision that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional
impact of french and indian war
.
bill of rights
the first 10 amendments to the constitution(ratified in 1791)
missouri compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Federalists
Those favoring ratification of the Constitution and the federalist form of government
Ten- Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government
amendment thirteen
Slavery Abolished
monroe doctrine
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Fredrick Douglass
supported women's rights movement,leading abolitionist
tariffs
a tax on foreign goods brought into a country
political party
an organization to gain political power
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
foreign policy
a policy governing international relations
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Columbian exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
Underground Railroad
abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves
amendment six
Right to a speedy trial by jury.
national supremacy
established that congress has the right to make laws that overpowers state laws
Abolition
movement to outlaw slavery
know nothings
people that were against immigration of Irish Catholics
Jefferson Davis
was president of the Confederacy
judicial review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Black codes
Legal restrictions on blacks, such as cannot serve on juries, no interracial marriage
Johnson's Plan
was similiar to Lincoln's but he added wealthy southern men.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Articles of confederation
a constitution drafted in 1777 and ratified in 1781; weak central govt. that could make laws or regular commerce
Lincoln Douglas debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
nullification crisis
dispute over states' rights in which a compromise was reached (1832)
urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities.
amendment fourteen
Citizenship Rights
annexation
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Judicial Branch
the branch of the United States government responsible for the administration of justice
Mayflower compact
this document established the first bases in the new world for written rights
amendment nine
Construction of Constitution
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
end of reconstruction
many freedmen lost their gains.
Nat Turner
leader of a slave rebellion in which 55 white women and men and children were killed
Middle passage
the voyage that brought slaves to america
border states
The states that were in the South, but did not join the Confederacy
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States
radical republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
sectionalism
a partiality for some particular place
fort sumter
union fort in Charleston, South Carolina
civil rights act of 1866
Act that prohibits any racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing
carpet baggers
Northeners who went to the South during Reconstruction to work
John Brown
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Anti- federalists
opposed ratification of constitution
tenant farming
People with money and animals farmed someone else's land and paid them rent
great compromise
compromise at the Constitutional Cov. in 1787 that reconciled the interest of large and small states
tenements
housing which were poorly built and overcrowded by immigrants
amendment five
Trial and punishment
popular sovereignty
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
amendment fifteen
Race No Barrier to Vote
manifest destiny
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Bleeding Kansas
Nickname given to the Kansas Terrietory because of the bloody violence there
lower south
states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina
reform
change that tries to bring improvement.
federalism
the idea of a federal organization of more or less self-governing units
amendment four
Search and Seizure
amendment eight
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Salutary neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
Executive Branch
the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
Mercantilism
a set of economic principles based on bolicies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
Legislative Branch
the part of government that writes and passes laws
amendment one
Freedom of Press, Religion, and Speech
amendment ten
Powers of the States and People
amendment two
right to bear arms
Expansion
An increase in size and power
scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
cotton gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
domestic policy
consists of all government policy decisions, programs, and actions that primarily deal with internal matters
John Locke
English philosopher, influenced the Declaration of Independence.
Seneca falls
Location of the first women's rights convention in 1848.
elastic clause
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
amendment seven
Trial by Jury in Civil cases
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Sherman's March to the Sea
march across georgia
write of habeas corpus
a court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody
sharecropping
Poor people contracted with landowners to work the land and get a share of the crop
radical reconstruction
when the republicans, who had control in both houses of congress, took charge of reconstruction
industrial revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
William Lloyd Garrison
United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)
Reconstruction
the period following the Civil War during which the federal government took action to rebuild the South
strict construction
belief that the goavernment should not do anything that the constitution does not specifically say it can do
checks and balances
each branch of the national government can check the actions of the oter two branches

Deck Info

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