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This group provided political organization necessary to unite colonies in their opposition to parlaiment. It was orgainzed by New England patriot leader, Samuel Adams
Commities of Correspondance
This act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Passed just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. However, Parliament continually interpreted the
Declaratory Act
This was a group of Boston merchants and artisans that formed during the Stamp Act crisis to lead the public in attempts to drive the stamp distributors from the city. This was one of the first steps toward political organization in the colonies.
Loyal Nine
This Act was enacted in 1765, requiring colonial assemblies to pay for certain supplies for troops stationed within their respective colonies. In 1767, New York, the colony in which the greatest number of troops were stationed, refused to comply with the
Quartering Act
This term refers to the state of Anglo-American relations before the end of the French and Indian War. British Parliament did not interfere in the government of the colonies, and America existed in relative political isolation.
Salutary Neglect
This is a group of successors from the Loyal Nine as the leaders of the opposition to the Stamp Act. They brought a new level of sophistication to the mass demonstrations, prohibiting their followers to carry weapons and using strict discipline and milit
Sons of Liberty
This taxation lowered the duty on foreign-produced molasses from six pence per gallon to 3 pence per gallon, in attempts to discourage smuggling. The act further stipulated that Americans could export many commodities, including lumber, iron, skins, and
Sugar Act
Parliament passed the Revenue Act of 1767 on July 2, 1767 and was often referred to ____________. The taxed glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that it was clearly designed more to raise revenue th
the Revenue Act
In response to the Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. These resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt s
Virginia Resolves
This concept was employed by Prime Minister George Grenville to explain why Parliament could legally tax the colonists even though the colonists could not elect any members of Parliament. This held that the members of Parliament did not only represent th
Virtual Representation
General search warrants, which allowed customs officers to search any building or ship they thought might contain smuggled goods, even without probable cause for suspicion. The colonists considered them to be a grave infringement upon personal liberties.
Writs of Assistance
This man played a key role in the defense of Colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty, and suggested the formation of the committees of correspondence. He was a crucial role in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New
Samuel Adams
On March 5, 1770, a crowd led by sailor Crispus Attucks formed to demonstrate against the customs agents. When a British officer tried to disperse the crowd, he and his men were bombarded with rocks and dared to shoot by the unruly mob. After being knock
Boston Massacre
In response to the Stamp Act, and representing a new level of pan-colonial political organization, on October 7, 1765, representatives of nine colonial assemblies met in New York City. The colonies agreed widely on the principles that Parliament could no
Stamp Act Congress
A prominent Boston lawyer who first became famous for defending the British soldiers accused of murdering five civilians in the Boston Massacre. He was origanally a delegate from Massachusetts in the Continental Congresses, where he rejected proposals fo
John Adams
A Philadelphia printer, inventor, and patriot. He was also a delegate for the Second Continental Congress and a member of the committee responsible for helping to draft the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
Benjamin Franklin
Prime minister of Parliament at the close of the French and Indian War. he was responsible for enforcing the Navigation Act and for passing the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Currency Act, and Quartering Act in the mid-1760s. He assumed, incorrectly, that colonis
George Grenville
A radical colonist famous for his “Give me liberty or give me death” speech. He openly advocated rebellion against the Crown in the years prior to the Revolutionary War.
Patrick Henry
Virginian planter and lawyer who eventually became president of the United States. he was invaluable to the revolutionary cause. In 1776, he drafted the Declaration of Independence, which justified American independence from Britain. Later, he served as
Thomas Jefferson
A radical philosopher who strongly supported republicanism and civic virtue. His 1776 pamphlet Common Sense was a bestselling phenomenon in the American colonies and convinced thousands to rebel against the “royal brute,” King George III. When subseq
Thomas Paine
British statesman who provided crucial leadership during the latter half of the French and Indian War. This man focused British war efforts so that Britain could defeat the French in Canada. Many have argued that without his leadership, Britain would hav
William Pitt
Another Virginia planter and militia officer. he participated in the first engagement of the French and Indian War in 1754 and later became commander in chief of the American forces during the Revolutionary War. In 1789, he became president of the United
George Washington
A congress convened by British officials in 1754 promoting a unification of British colonies in North America for security and defense against the French. Although this group failed to foster any solid colonial unity, it did bring together many colonial
Albany Congress
Two battles, fought on April 19, 1775, that opened the Revolutionary War. When British troops engaged a small group of colonial militiamen in these small town, the militiamen fought back and eventually forced the British to retreat, harrying the redcoats
Battle of Lexington and Concord
A 1777 British defeat that was a major turning point in the Revolutionary War. The defeat convinced the French to ally themselves with the United States and enter the war against Britain. Most historians agree that without help from France, the United St
Battle of Saratoga
An incident that took place on December 16, 1773, when a band of Bostonians led by the Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Native Americans and destroyed chests of tea aboard ships in the harbor. The Tea Party prompted the passage of the Intolerable
Boston Tea Party
A meeting convened in late 1774 that brought together delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies (Georgia abstained) in order to protest the Intolerable Acts. Colonial leaders stood united against these and other British acts and implored Parliament
First Continental Congress
A war—part of the Seven Years’ War fought in the mid-1700s among the major European powers—waged in North America from 1754 to 1763. The British and American colonists fought in the war against the French and their Native American allies. After the
French and Indian War
Those who chose to support Britain during the Revolutionary War. These people were particularly numerous in the lower southern states, but they also had support from Anglican clergymen, wealthy citizens, and colonial officials. Thousands served in ____ m
An economic theory predominant in the 1700s that stipulated that nations should amass wealth in order to increase their power. Under this term, the European powers sought new colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia because they wanted sources of cheap
Those who supported the war against Britain. In January 1776, the English émigré philosopher and radical Thomas Paine published the pamphlet Common Sense, which beseeched Americans to rebel against the “royal brute,” King George III, declare indepe
An uprising led by the Ottawa chief Pontiac against British settlers after the end of the French and Indian War. Pontiac united several Native American tribes in the Ohio Valley and attacked British and colonial settlements in the region. The forces unde
Pontiac’s Rebellion
A meeting convened in 1775 by colonial leaders to discuss how to proceed after the recent Battle of Lexington and Concord. The Congress decided to try one last time to restore peaceful relations with Britain by signing the Olive Branch Petition. In the m
Second Continental Congress
He was an English Philosopher who influenced the thoughts and actions of American leaders in the revolutionary era. The author of Two Treatises of Government (1690),he attacked the theory of divine right of kings, arguing that the power of the state rest
John Locke
rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They advocated a governmental structure that granted power to the states.
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, these papers were the document that established the United States of America. They granted few powers to the central government and left most powers up to the individual states. The result was a weak, rather
Articles of Confederation -
Though the Anti-federalists were not able to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did make progress in ensuring that this document would be created. It was drafted by a group led by James Madison, was the collection of the first ten amendment
Bill of Rights
The Constitution set forth a government composed of 3 branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial. Each branch was given certain powers over the others to ensure that no one branch usurped a dangerous amount of power. This system, represented the
Checks and Balances
The bicameral legislative body set up by the Connecticut Compromise. The two houses of _____, the Senate and the House of Representatives, accorded to both the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan, in that membership numbers in the House were determined
The document produced by the Constitutional Convention, and ratified by the states in 1789. As opposed to the Articles of Confederation, the document replaced it, It helped create a strong central government with broad judicial, legislative, and executiv
Article I, Section VIII of the Constitution states that Congress shall have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution...powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States."
Elastic Clause
documents which contained a series of newspaper articles written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton which enumerate the arguments in favor of the Constitution and against the Anti-federalists.
The Federalist Papers
First rising to national attention during the process of ratification, they remained an important influence on the government throughout the Washington administration. Led by Alexander Hamilton, they believed in a strong central government at the expense
this peace agreement provided for the removal of British troops from American land, and avoided the outbreak of war with Britain. While seen as unsuccessful by the majority of the American public, this agreement may have been the greatest diplomatic feat
Jay's Treaty
was presented at the Constitutional Convention as an alternative to the Virginia Plan. It favored small states in that it proposed a unicameral Congress with equal representation for each state.
New Jersey Plan
In 1787 this defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. It forbade slavery in the territory, but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. It was t
Northwest Ordinance
Rising up as the opposition party to the dominant Federalists during the Washington administration,_______ claimed that liberty could only be protected if political power were rested firmly in the hands of the people and those government officials closes
favored a strict reading of the Constitution and especially of the elastic clause, in order to limit the powers of the central government. Led by Thomas Jefferson, this group embodied the ideological core of the Republican Party
Strict Constructionists
The highest judicial body in the land, as created by the Constitution.
Supreme Court
During the framing of the Constitution, Southern delegates argued that slaves should count toward representative seats, while the delegates of northern states, most of which had or would soon abolish slavery, argued that to count slaves as members of the
Three-fifths Clause
was the first major proposal covering representation presented to the Constitutional Convention. It proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. It favored the large states, who would hav
Virginia Plan
The outspoken leader of the Federalists, He emerged as a major political figure during the Constitutional Convention, and during the period of ratification, as one of the authors of The Federalist Papers. As Secretary of Treasury under Washington,he spea
Alexander Hamilton
HE played an important role in the establishment of the new government under the Constitution. One of the authors of The Federalist Papers, he was involved in the drafting of the Constitution, became the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court under Was
John Jay
Washington appointed ____, his first Secretary of War. Knox played a valuable role in the development of the executive branch. His most notable actions came in relation to the struggle with the Native Americans on the frontier, where he declared the Indi
Henry Knox
He joined forces with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay as a Federalist leader during the Constitutional Convention and beyond. He was one of the authors of The Federalist Papers and, as a member of the first Congress, a staunch advocate of strong central
James Madison
Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at this city in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation.
Annapolis Convention
As economic depression struck Massachusetts, farmers were increasingly burdened by debt, a problem exacerbated by an increase in taxes. In August 1786, Western Massachusetts farmers organized in an attempt to shut down three county courthouses through vi
Shays' Rebellion
Alexander Hamilton had pushed a high excise tax through Congress as part of his economic policy efforts. However, the tax affected western Pennsylvania distillers almost exclusively, and was administered by federal officials with little knowledge of or c
Whiskey Rebellion
Published on September 19, 1796, George Washington officially resigned the presidency after two terms, setting a precedent that would remain in place until FDR in the 1930s. The focus of the address was a warning that Americans should avoid the rise of p
Washington's Farewell Address
An influential planter and statesman from Virginia, this man proposed the resolution that led both to the formulation of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, once s
Richard Henry Lee
Who was the last to ratify the articles of confederation
Maryland in 1781
A a diplomat to spain, he attempted to negotiate for American access to trade along the Mississippi River. Threatened by Americans moving westward, the Spanish diplomat recommended instead that Spain would establish trade with eastern U.S. ports, assist
Jay-Gardoqui talks
Proposed by Thomas Jefferson just a month after Virginia officially handed over western lands to congress, this ordinance established the process by which new lands would be divided into states, the process for surveying and sale, and the qualifications
Land Ordinance of 1784
This treaty, negotiated on behalf of the U.S. by Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Samuel Adams, formally acknowledged the independence of the thirteen American colonies, and set the boundaries of the new nation at the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the Missi
Treaty of Paris
A former governor of Indiana Territory and brigadier general in the U.S. Army who rose to national stardom when he defeated the Northwest Confederacy at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. He went on to be elected president in 1840.
William Henry Harrison
A hero of the war of 1812 and the Creek War who later entered the national political arena and became president in 1829. He was nicknamed “Old Hickory,” and was the first U.S. president to come from a region west of the Appalachians
Andrew Jackson
A Virginia officer, lawyer, and Democratic-Republican who was elected president in 1816 and inaugurated the Era of Good Feelings. An excellent administrator, he bolstered the federal government and supported internal improvements, and was so popular in h
James Monroe
A group of acts passed in 1798, designed to restrict the freedom of foreigners in the United States and curtail the free press in anticipation of a war with France. These acts lengthened the residency time required for foreigners to become American citiz
Alien Acts
Successors of the Anti-Federalists who formed a party under Thomas Jefferson’s leadership during Washington’s and Adams’s presidencies. They generally favored westward expansion, the formation of an agrarian republic, and an alliance with France, a
A body of representatives appointed by states to cast their votes for president. The presidential candidate who receives the most of these type of votes, regardless of how many popular votes he or she receives, becomes president. The framers of the Const
Electoral College
A liquor tax proposed by Alexander Hamilton in 1790 to raise revenue so that Congress could pay off all national and state debts. This taxation was immensely unpopular with western farmers, whose protests eventually culminated in the Whiskey Rebellion of
Excise Tax of 1791
An agreement between the large and small states at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 to create a bicameral (two-house) Congress with one chamber of delegates assigned based on population (the House of Representatives) and another chamber in which all
Great Compromise
An 1814–1815 meeting of delegates from five New England states in Hartford, Connecticut, to discuss possible secession from the Union due to discontent with the War of 1812. The delegates ultimately decided to remain in the Union but sent a petition to
Hartford Convention
A series of acts passed in the 1790s that attempted to smooth relations between the United States and Native American tribes along the western frontier. The act attempted to regulate trade between these groups and promised that the United States would ac
Indian Intercourse Acts
The first act that Congress passed, which created the tiered U.S. federal court system. The Supreme Court, under Chief Justice John Jay, was at the head of the court system, supported by three circuit courts and thirteen district courts. Even though this
Judiciary Act of 1789
An ordinance passed by the national Congress under the Articles of Confederation that established an efficient system to survey and auction lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Land Ordinance of 1785
An 1810 bill that restored U.S. commerce with Britain and France (after their interruption under the Embargo Act and Non-Intercourse Act) but threatened to revive the terms of the Non-Intercourse Act if either country failed to respect U.S. neutrality an
Macon’s Bill No. 2
Also known as the small state plan, a proposal at the 1787 Constitutional Convention to create a unicameral (single-house) legislature in which all states would be equally represented. The New Jersey plan appealed to smaller states but not to more populo
New Jersey Plan
An 1809 act that replaced the ineffective Embargo Act in an attempt to revive the faltering American economy by boosting U.S. exports. The ________ banned trade only with France and Britain (unlike the Embargo Act, which banned exports completely) until
Non-Intercourse Act
A 1798 act (passed simultaneously with the Alien Acts) that banned all forms of public expression critical of the president or Congress. President John Adams approved the act, fearing the influence of French immigrants in the United States and also hopin
Sedition Act
A term referring to the fact that each of the three branches in the American federal government has separate and distinct powers. The legislative branch, for example, has the sole ability to propose and pass laws, while the executive branch has the power
Separation of Powers
The December 1814 treaty that ended the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States. The treaty stated that the war had ended in a stalemate and that neither side had gained or lost any territory. Ironically, the Battle of New Orleans—the greates
Treaty of Ghent
Two resolutions, passed in 1798–1799 and written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, that declared that the individual states had the right to nullify unconstitutional acts of Congress. The resolutions stated that because the individual states had c
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Also known as the large state plan, a proposal at the 1787 Constitutional Convention to create a bicameral (two-house) legislature in which delegates would be appointed according to the population of the state they represented. Large states with greater
Virginia Plan
A younger generation of statesmen, primarily from the West and South, who replaced the Founding Fathers in the first decade of the 1800s. This group favored westward expansion and a nationalist agenda and thus encouraged war against both the Northwest Co
War Hawks
A bribery scandal that caused public uproar during the Adams administration in 1798. After several naval skirmishes and French seizures of American merchant ships, Adams sent ambassadors to Paris to try to normalize relations. When the emissaries arrived
XYZ Affair
The peak of British disrespect for American neutrality at sea, on June 22, 1807, The British naval frigate HMS Leopard followed the American naval frigate USS Chesapeake out of Norfolk harbor in Virginia, and opened fire upon it after a request to board
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
In response to the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, Jefferson endorsed the ____________, passed on December 22, 1807, which shut America off from the world economically by forbidding ships from leaving American ports to trade with other nations. He hoped the a
Embargo Act
Established by Chief Justice John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison, the principle of __________held that the Supreme Court could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Judicial Review
John Adams made a number of appointments to federal justice positions on his way out of office. One of those, the appointment of William Marbury as justice of the peace in the District of Columbia, was not delivered by midnight of his last night in offic
Marbury v. Madison
This man ran for president in 1800, chosen by the party to be Jefferson's vice president. However, every Republican elector voted for Jefferson and ___ so a tie ensued that had to be resolved by the House of Representatives. After a considerable struggle
Aaron Burr
Two explorers were commissioned by Jefferson to explore the new territory of the Louisiana Purchase. They traveled 3,000 miles in two and a half years, collecting scientific data and specimens, and charting the territory to the west of the Mississippi. T
Lewis and Clark
This man earned the nickname "the lost pathfinder" due to his misadventures in exploring the headwaters of the Mississippi, and later the Arkansas River. It is suspected by many that his true mission in exploring the Arkansas may have been to i
Zebulon Pike
This man was the French foreign minister during Jefferson's presidency. He was instrumental in France's continued efforts to dominate and maipulate the US governments. In October 1797, it was he who perpetrated the XYZ Affair, sending anonymous agents to
Charles de Tallyrand
He was the military commander of the Louisiana Territory; he sent Zebulon Pike on his exploration missions. Heavily involved in espionage, it is known that this man was on Spain's payroll for his part in trying to persuade southwestern settlers to secede
James Wilkinson
This election marked the transition of power from Federalists to Republicans, and began a period of tearing down the Federalist style of government and building up a Republican framework.
Election of 1800
Negotiated in April 1803, the ___________ was one of the most important events in US history. It doubled the size of the nation, opening the west to exploration and settlement. With the ____________came the possibility of expansion and also the strife wh
Louisiana Purchase
During the Texas Rebellion, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's Mexican force of 4,000 troops laid siege to the town of San Antonio, where 200 Texans resisted, retreating to this abandoned mission. After inflicting over 1,500 casualties on Santa Anna's men, th
The Alamo
was a major effort at quieting sectional conflict in pre-Civil War American politics. In terms of expansion, its most important clauses were those admitting California to statehood as a free state and dividing the remainder of the Mexican cession after t
Compromise of 1850
Passed in 1887, this act called for the breakup of the reservations and the treatment of Indians as individuals rather than tribes. It provided for the distribution of 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land to any Indian who accepted the act'
Dawes Severalty Act
The first canal project of the 1820s, the 363-mile ____was completed in 1825, connecting Buffalo, New York, on the Great Lakes, with Albany, on the Hudson River. The ____ made cost effective shipping possible via waterways from New York City to the West
Erie Canal
This act was passed in 1830, granted President Andrew Jackson funds and authority to remove the Indians by force if necessary. He pursued a determined effort to coerce the Indians into expulsion.
Indian Removal Act
Journalist John L. O'Sullivan coined the phrase "________" in 1845. He wrote of "our ________ to overspread and to possess the whole of our continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty.&quo
Manifest Destiny
In 1835, federal agents persuaded a pro-removal Cherokee chief to sign the Treaty of New Echota, which ceded all Cherokee land for $5.6 million and free transportation west. Most Cherokees rejected the treaty, but resistance was futile. Between 1835 and
Trail of Tears
On May 10, 1869, the first ________ railroad was completed when the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads joined their tracks at Promontory Point, Utah. The railroad rapidly affected the ease of western settlement, shortening the journey from coast
Transcontinental Railroad
___________was an amendment proposed to an appropriations bill regarding the West, which proposed that slavery be prohibited in all of the Mexican cession other than Texas. The _____ passed the House but stalled in the Senate, where it was the cause of f
Wilmot Proviso
In the case of ______________, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees comprised a "domestic dependent nation" within Georgia and thus deserved protection from harassment. However, the vehemently anti-Indian Andrew Jackson refused
Worcester v. Georgia
This man is credited with the invention of the first effective steamboat, which he unveiled with his business partner, Robert Livingston, in New York in 1807. The Steamboat revolutionized river travel because it could move rapidly upstream, a feat no oth
Robert Fulton
This man was President of the United States from 1845 to 1849. He oversaw the annexation of Oregon and of Texas, and is credited with beginning the Mexican War in earnest. He was a firm believer in expansion and pursued his goals with vigor. However, man
James K. Polk
This man became President of the United States in 1841, when William Henry Harrison died after a month in office. _______ and his secretary of state, John Calhoun, a fierce advocate for slavery, tried by dishonest and manipulative means to gain support f
John Tyler
The state banks that had risen up to financially support speculation and expansion had issued notes far in excess of what they could realistically redeem. In reaction to this situation, the Bank of the United States insisted that the state banks redeem a
Panic of 1819
After an excited Native American fired a rifle shot in a non-combat situation, US Army troops massacred 300 Indians, including seven children. The massacre was the symbolic final step in the war for the West, and after this event the Indians succumbed to
Wounded Knee
American island fortress that guarded Baltimore's Harbor. In 1814, it withstood British bombardment, inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the Star-Spangled Banner
Fort McHenry
Technique the British used to staff their ships. Sailors from other countries would be captured and forced to work for the British navy in a "press-gang" crew. Though certainly a British technique, it was not as prevalent as exaggerated by Amer
British laws requiring all ships wishing to trade with Europe to stop in a British port first.
Orders in Council
When a state or states leaves the union based on the argument that if the union no longer represents the interests of the state, it has a right ("States' Rights") to do so as a sovereign entity.
Sixth president of the United States (1825-1829) and leading formulator of American diplomacy.
John Quincy Adams
General who commanded the British forces in Canada during the War of 1812.
Isaac Brock
An American naval officer,_____'s small fleet won a celebrated battle against the British on Lake Erie.
Oliver Hazard Perry
August 24, 1814 battle in which British (under Ross) routed the Americans (under Winder) so quickly that it came to be called the "_________Races". This battle opened the way for the British to march to Washington, which they burned.
Signed on December 24, 1815 in the Belgian town of Ghent, the ________ ended the War of 1812, returning the situation between the US and Britain to its status quo ante bellum (the way things were before the war).
Treaty of Ghent
Meeting in late 1814 of discontented New England Federalists to discuss their grievances with the War of 1812. Some members contemplated secession, but the _______________ was generally more moderate than that. When the war soon ended, the ____________ s
Hartford Convention
Also called the Battle of Tohopeka; 1814 battle in which Andrew Jackson crushed the Creek Indian resistance once and for all, ending his Indian campaign and becoming a national military hero.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
October 5, 1813 battle in which General Harrison won a decisive victory over the combined British and Indian forces in Ontario, Canada. Tecumseh was killed in this battle. This victory helped make Harrison even more popular after Tippecanoe.
Battle of the Thames
November 7, 1811 victory by General Harrison, in which he destroyed the headquarters of Tecumseh's Indian confederation. Although the US forces suffered heavy losses, Harrison was considered a victor and a hero, and he used the slogan "______ and Ty
An ardent women’s rights activist from the 1840s to the end of the century. She spoke out tirelessly against racial and gender inequality and also supported the temperance movement.
Susan B. Anthony
President of the Bank of the United States during the 1820s and 1830s. ____exerted significant influence over the American economy through his position. Andrew Jackson, however, despised ____ and the wealthy whom he represented and eventually destroyed t
Nicholas Biddle
Vice president to both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, who also led the movement to nullify the 1828 Tariff of Abominations. Shortly after Congress passed the tariff, _______wrote an anonymous essay entitled “South Carolina Exposition and Protest
John C. Calhoun
A schoolteacher from Massachusetts who spearheaded the campaign to establish publicly funded asylums to help the mentally ill. ____’s report on the state of the mentally disabled in the state’s prisons convinced legislators to build the first asylums
Dorothea Dix
An American essayist and philosopher who was one of the leading Transcendentalists in the 1830s through 1850s. His essays, such as the famous “Self-Reliance,” made him one of the nation’s most popular practical philosophers.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
A former lawyer who applied his sharp wit and intellect to preach evangelism throughout the North during the 1830s. __________ camp-style meetings put thousands of people into a frenzy during his fifty-year crusade. He encouraged women to lead groups in
Charles G. Finney
An American surveyor and explorer who, days after Congress declared war on Mexico in 1846, went about taking control of the territory of California. In January 1847, after only a few minor battles, California surrendered to _____. Many accused him of bei
John Frémont
A radical abolitionist who advocated the immediate emancipation of all slaves in the United States. ______’s infamous magazine, The Liberator, earned him many enemies in the South.
William Lloyd Garrison
A champion of public education who served as secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education in the 1830s. ___ supervised the creation of many new tax-supported schools and fought for better curriculum, higher pay for teachers, and more teacher qualifi
Horace Mann
Inventor of the mechanical mower-reaper, which had an enormous impact on Western agriculture in the 1840s and 1850s. Whereas American farmers had primarily been planting corn, the mower-reaper allowed them to plant wheat, which was a far more profitable
Cyrus McCormick
A Democratic-Republican from Virginia who was elected president in 1816 and inaugurated the Era of Good Feelings. An excellent administrator, ___bolstered the federal government and supported internal improvements. The nation was so united under his firs
James Monroe
A New Yorker who founded the Mormon church (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) after claiming to have received a new set of gospels from an angel. _____________ attracted a large following but was forced to move to the Midwest to escape persecu
Joseph Smith
One of the first American feminists. Stanton joined Susan B. Anthony in the mid-1800s to call for social and political equality for women. She helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 and drafted the convention’s Declaration of Sentiments.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A Mexican War hero who became the second and last Whig president in 1848. In order to avoid controversy over the westward expansion of slavery in the Mexican Cession, Taylor campaigned without a solid platform. He died after only sixteen months in office
Zachary Taylor
Secretary of state to Andrew Jackson who went on to become the Democratic president in 1836. ____'s term was plagued by a depression that arose after the financial Panic of 1837. _______, believing that the economy had worsened because federal funds were
Martin Van Buren
A senator from New Hampshire, renowned for his oratory and for his ardent belief in the American System. A leading statesman of his day,_______allied with Henry Clay in 1834 to form the new Whig Party. As Whigs, he and Clay campaigned for progressive new
Daniel Webster
cotton gin and interchangable parts
Eli Whittney
A movement spearheaded by Speaker of the House Henry Clay that called for internal improvements, higher protectionist tariffs, and a strong national banking system. The system’s supporters, including Daniel Webster, succeeded in chartering the Bank of
American System
A small-scale 1838–1839 turf war, fought between American and Canadian woodsmen in northern Maine, that almost erupted into a larger war between Britain and the United States. The _______convinced both countries that settlement of northern Maine territ
Aroostook War
A private bank, chartered in 1816 by proponents of Henry Clay’s American System, that provided the fledgling United States with solid credit and financial stability in the 1820s and 1830s under the leadership of Nicholas Biddle. Many in the West and So
Bank of the United States
A brief 1832 war in Illinois in which the U.S. Army trounced Chief Black Hawk and about 1,000 of his Sauk and Fox followers, who refused to be resettled according to the Indian Removal Act.
Black Hawk War
An area in the state of new york which spurred new religions such as the mormon church and onedia company in th 1830s and also reform movements in the 1840s
Burned-Over District
An 1821 Supreme Court ruling that set an important precedent reaffirming the Court’s authority to review all decisions made by state courts. When the supreme court of Virginia found the Cohen brothers guilty of illegally selling lottery tickets, the br
Cohens v. Virginia
A tariff, proposed by Henry Clay, that ended the Nullification Crisis dispute between Andrew Jackson and South Carolina. The compromise tariff repealed the Tariff of Abominations and reduced duties on foreign goods gradually over a decade to the levels s
Compromise Tariff of 1833
A scandal that arose during the election of 1824 that tainted John Quincy Adams’s entire term in office. When neither Adams nor his opponent, Andrew Jackson, received enough electoral votes to become president, the election was thrown to the House of R
The “Corrupt Bargain”
A federally funded road, also known as the National Road, that was completed in 1837 and then expanded several times throughout the antebellum period. When finally completed, the Cumberland Road stretched all the way from Maryland to Illinois. It was a o
Cumberland Road
An 1819 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the right of private institutions to hold private contracts. When the New Hampshire state legislature revised Dartmouth College’s original charter from King George III, the college appealed to the U.S. Supreme C
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
An 1810 Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Georgia state legislature could not cancel a contract that a previous legislature had already granted. The decision by Chief Justice John Marshall protected the permanence of legal contract
Fletcher v. Peck
An 1833 bill that authorized the federal government to use military force to collect tariff duties. The bill demonstrated Andrew Jackson’s resolve to end the 1832–1833 Nullification Crisis in South Carolina.
Force Bill
An order that the House of Representatives, beleaguered by the growing abolitionist movement in the North, passed in 1836 to ban further discussion of slavery.
Gag Resolution
An 1824 Supreme Court ruling that declared that the state of New York could not grant a monopoly to a company engaged in interstate commerce. Chief Justice John Marshall thus exerted federal power by upholding that only the federal government had the rig
Gibbons v. Ogden
A term referring to infrastructure projects, mostly involving transportation, that were key features of Henry Clay’s American System. Scores of canals and roads were dug to link the East with the West during the period from 1816 to 1852. The most famou
Internal Improvements
A party, known formally as the American Party, of nativist Americans who wanted to stop the tide of foreign immigrants from Ireland and Germany entering the United States in the 1840s and 1850s. The Know-Nothings nominated former president Millard Fillmo
Know-Nothing Party
A northern abolitionist party that formed in 1840 when the abolitionist movement split into a social wing and a political wing. The party nominated James G. Birney in the election of 1844 against Whig Henry Clay and Democrat James K. Polk. Surprisingly,
Liberty Party
An 1851 law that prohibited the sale, manufacture, and consumption of alcohol in the state of Maine. The law, a huge victory for the temperance movement, encouraged other states in the North to pass similar prohibitory laws.
Maine Law
An 1820 compromise, devised by Henry Clay, to admit Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The compromise maintained the sectional balance in the Senate—twelve free states and twelve slave states—and forbade slavery north of the 36° 30
Missouri Compromise
A financial panic, caused in part by overspeculation in western lands, that slid the U.S. economy into a decade-long depression. Farmers in the West and South were hit hardest, but the depression’s effects were felt everywhere. The panic helped bring a
Panic of 1819
A war fought by the U.S. Army against members of the Seminole tribe in Florida who refused to be resettled west of the Mississippi River in the late 1830s.
Seminole War
An essay, written anonymously by Vice President John C. Calhoun, that called on the southern states to declare the 1828 Tariff of Abominations null and void. The essay encouraged South Carolina legislators to nullify the tariff, pitting the state against
“South Carolina Exposition and Protest”
Resolutions introduced in 1847 by Congressman Abraham Lincoln, who, unconvinced that the Mexican army had attacked U.S. forces unprovoked, demanded to know the exact spot where Mexicans had attacked. Lincoln’s persistence—and the confusing answers th
Spot Resolutions
An 1819 act passed by the northern-dominated House of Representatives in an attempt to curb westward expansion of slavery. The act declared that Missouri could be admitted to the Union as a slave state, but only on the condition that no more slaves enter
Tallmadge Amendment
A tariff passed by John Tyler that brought duties on foreign manufactured goods down to the level of the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
Tariff of 1842
A treaty between the United States and Britain that established a fixed border with Canada from Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains. The treaty also declared that both countries would occupy the Oregon Territory jointly until 1828. Though not highly regarde
Treaty of 1818
The extension of voting rights to nearly every white American male during the antebellum period. In the early United States, men had had to meet certain property-ownership and literacy qualifications in order to vote, but during the 1830s and 1840s, more
Universal Manhood Suffrage
An 1846 tariff that lowered tariff rates, which had climbed higher and higher after their brief reduction in 1842.
Walker Tariff
A party formed in 1834 under the leadership of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. The Whigs, named after an anti-British party during the Revolutionary War era, promoted a platform of social reform (education, prison, temperance, and so on), abolition of sla
A pro-Southern Democrat who became the fifteenth president of the United States in 1856. _________ defeated John Frémont of the new Republican Party and former president Millard Fillmore of the Know-Nothing Party in one of the most hotly contested elect
James Buchanan
A former Senator from Mississippi who was selected as the first president of the Confederacy in 1861. Overworked and underappreciated by his fellow Confederates, _______ struggled throughout the Civil War to unify the Southern states under the central go
Jefferson Davis
An influential Democratic senator and presidential candidate from Illinois. Douglas pushed the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act through Congress to entice railroad developers to build a transcontinental railroad line in the North. The act opened Kansas and Nebra
Stephen Douglas
The Union’s top general in the Civil War, who went on to become the eighteenth U.S. president. Nicknamed “Unconditional Surrender” Grant, he waged total war against the South in 1863 and 1864.
Ulysses S. Grant
A very caoutioious civil war general but defeated lee in 1862
Mc Chlennan
Lincoln eventually fired McClellan, however, after the general began to criticize publicly the president’s ability to command. In 1864, McClellan ran for president as a Peace Democrat on a platform for peace against Lincoln but was defeated.
Emancipation Proclamation.
Fourteenth president of the United States, elected in 1852 as a proslavery Democrat from New England. Pierce combined his desire for empire and westward expansion with the South’s desire to find new slave territories. He tacitly backed William Walkerâ€
Franklin Pierce
William Tecumseh Sherman
. Sherman, like Grant, understood that the war would only truly be won when the Union forces had broken the will of the Southern public to fight. Sherman is best known for the total war he and his expedition force waged on the South during his March to the Sea.
A senator from Massachusetts who delivered an antislavery speech in the wake of the Bleeding Kansas crisis in 1856. In response, Sumner was caned nearly to death by South Carolinian congressman Preston Brooks on the Senate floor. The attack indicated jus
Charles Sumner
A violent crisis that enveloped Kansas after Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. After the act passed, hundreds of Missourians crossed the border to make Kansas a slave state. Outraged by the intimidation tactics these “border ruffians”
Bleeding Kansas
A group of hundreds of Missourians who crossed the border into Kansas, hoping to make Kansas a slave state after Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. The border ruffians rigged the elections to choose delegates for the Kansas constitutional c
“Border Ruffians”
A party formed by disgruntled Northern abolitionists in 1848, when Democrats nominated Lewis Cass for president and Whigs nominated the politically inept Zachary Taylor. Former president Martin Van Buren became the Free-Soil candidate for president, camp
Free-Soil Party
A law passed under the Compromise of 1850 that forced Northerners to return runaway slaves to the South. Angered by the fact that many Northerners supported the Underground Railroad, Southerners demanded this new and stronger Fugitive Slave Act as part o
Fugitive Slave Act
An October 16, 1859, raid by John Brown, the infamous Free-Soiler who had killed five proslavery men at the Pottawatomie Massacre. This time around, Brown stormed an arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (present-day West Virginia), with twenty other men. H
Harpers Ferry Raid
The Kansas constitution that resulted when hundreds of proslavery border ruffians from Missouri crossed into Kansas after the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and rigged the elections to choose delegates for the Kansas constitutional convention. The border ru
Lecompton Constitution
A Northern abolitionist party formed in 1840 when the abolitionist movement split into a social wing and a political wing. The Liberty Party nominated James G. Birney in the election of 1844 against Whig Henry Clay and Democrat James K. Polk. Surprisingl
Liberty Party
A Northern party, also nicknamed the “Copperheads” after the poisonous snake, that criticized Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War. The Peace Democrats did not particularly care that the Southern states had seceded and wanted to let them go in peace. Th
Peace Democrats
The idea that citizens in the West should vote to determine whether their respective territories would become free states or slave states upon admission to the Union. Popular sovereignty was first proposed by presidential candidate Lewis Cass in 1848 and
Popular Sovereignty
The killing of five proslavery men near Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas, by John Brown and a band of abolitionist vigilantes in retaliation for the burning of Free-Soil Lawrence, Kansas. Neither Brown nor any of his men were brought to justice. Instead, borde
Pottawatomie Massacre

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