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History Finals (Mrs.Devries)

History exams...study guide

Terms

undefined, object
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Qur'an
the holy book of Islam
Thutmose III
Hatshepsut's stepson; he brought Egypt to the heigth of its power
Constaninople
in A.D 330 Emperor Constatine moved the capital of Rome in Italy eastward to the newly built city
cataract
large waterfall--Nile
oasis
a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)
veto
vote against--consuls in Rome
tribe
a group of people united by race + customs under the same leader
pilgrimage
a journey to a sacred place
disciple
a follower of Jesus
fief
Land owned by a lord given to a vassal in return for a service
republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt
Rome
(Place) Capital of Italy and former center of the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire
homage
honor or shoed respect to a lord by a vassal
mosque
the muslim place of worship
tithe
an offering of a tenth part of some personal income
Augustus
adopted son of Caesar became the first emperor of rome
manor
the landed estate of a lord (including the house on it)
hieroglyph
a writing system using picture symbols
papyrus
tall sedge of the Nile valley yielding fiber that served many purposes in historic times
monotheism
the belief in one god
emir
an independent ruler or chieftain (especially in Africa or Arabia)
Pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Jesus
a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth
emperor
ruler
Muslim
a believer or follower of Islam
crusades
A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.
hierarchy
ranked in power, the organization of people at different ranks in an administrative body
pharaoh
the title of the ancient Egyptian kings
serf
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
council
noun-a group of people who meet to decide or plan something, give advice, or make laws
feudalism
A system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners
prophet
a person who others believe speaks or writes without a divine message
dynasty
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
Shiite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
inflation
when too much money is printed, losses value and businesses raise prices
artisan
a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft
martyr
one who suffers for the sake of principle
consul
official chosen to manage the government and the army
monastary
a community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion
caliph
a title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule
dictator
a speaker who dictates to a secretary or a recording machine
mummy
a body embalmed and dried and wrapped for burial (as in ancient Egypt)
infidel
an unbeliever of the Christian God
messiah
someone to come and save the Jews
Paul
a religious leader who preached to gentiles as well as jews and helped to establish and strengthen the christian religon
covenant
enter into a formal agreement
patriarch
a man who is older and higher in rank than yourself
regent
someone who rules during the absence or incapacity or minority of the country's monarch
clergy
A body of officials who perform religious services, such as priests, ministers or rabbis.
oath of fealty
promise of loyalty in exchange for land (from a lord to a vassal)
knight
an armed, mounted soldier
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
The Nile River
The most important and biggest river that runs through Egypt. It helped the Egyptians very much. It was considered sacred.
Julius Caesar
Made dictator for life in 45 BCE, after conquering Gaul, assinated in 44 BCE by the Senate because they were afraid of his power
diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
bureaucracy
Government by departments of men transacting particular branches of public business.
guild
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
calligraphy
beautiful handwriting used by the muslims
Constantine
an emperor of the Roman Empire & the founder of Constantinople
nomad
a member of a group that settles briefly in one place and then moves on to another
mercenary
a person hired to fight for another country than their own
idol
a material effigy that is worshipped as a god
silt
mud or clay or small rocks deposited by a river or lake
circus
an arena consisting of an oval or circular area enclosed by tiers of seats and usually covered by a tent
pyramid
Huge, triangular shaped burial tombs of Egyptian pharaohs built during the Old Kingdom
university
establishment where a seat of higher learning is housed, including administrative and living quarters as well as facilities for research and teaching
Epistle
especially a long, formal letter from Paul
aqueduct
a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley--used in rome
Sunna
(Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran
gladiator
(ancient Rome) a professional combatant or a captive who entertained the public by engaging in mortal combat
social class
groups with differant levels of importance
province
the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of the Roman nation
Octavian
see Caesar Augustus
irrigation
to supply land with water by means of ditches or channels
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion. (p. 230)
Jerusalem
A city in Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christianity, Muslim, and Jews
legacy
a gift
literacy
the ability to read and write
Sunni
A group of Islamic religion that believes that its religious leader should be elected based on merit.
afterlife
life after death
colloseum
where gladiators fought to death as well as the persecution of Christians
excommunication
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
Gospels
four books in the New Testament that tell the story of Christ's life and teachings
delta
a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
surplus
a situation in which the quantity supplied is greater than the quantity demanded.-food
Islam
Submission to Allah

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