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Biology Chapters 7-13


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The differences in physical appearance between males and females of some species such as ibexes and peacocks is known as _____?
Sexual Dimorphism
Female reproductive organs responsible for egg production are ____ while in males, the organs responsible for sperm production are _____?
Ovaries, Testes
In the presence of estrogen, the internal female genetalia are formed from a set of tubes known as _____?
Mullerian Ducts
Despite being genetically XY, people with mutated genes for testosterone receptors develop as females, a condition known as _____?
Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS)
Steroid hormones are produced from a fatty precursor commonly found in the cell membranes known as _____?
An occurence where paired chromosomes do not separate during meiosis and are both passed into the same genetic gamete is known as _____?
Trisomy 21, a condition where an individual has three copies of chromosome 21 due to a nondisjunction event, is more commonly known as _____?
Down's Syndrome
In Turner syndrome, nondisjunction results in an individual with the sex chromosome compliment of _____?
In Kleinfelter syndrome, as a result of nondisjunction, an individual has a sex chromosome complementation of _____?
In crocodiles, sex determination is dependant upon incubation environment _____?
The type of sequential sex determination where all organisms start life male and a breeding female is replaced by a male changing sex is known as _____?
Life with its ability to reproduce began on this planet _____ years ago?
3.7 billion
Because changes in DNA must occur in order for life to adapt and survive, there must be some errors in the process of _____?
DNA Replication
The greates ability to produce variation resulting from very rapid reproduction rates exist in _____ cells?
Prokaryotic or Bacterial
The attitude that interprets reality exclusively in terms of human values and experiences is known as _____?
The attitude that attributes human motivations and characteristics to inanimate objects or animals is known as _____?
For each offspring, the parent that has to invest the most energy to care for it is the _____?
The physical differences seen between males and females in species where males are polygamous and provide no parental care is known as _____?
Sexual Dimorphism
Females can smell Major Histocompatability Genes (MHC) in potential mates and prefer mates with MHC genes _____ from their own?
A set of complex behavioral traits that are embedded in the genetic program of biological organisms are known as _____?
Fixed Action Patterns or FAPs
Fixed action patterns are initiated by some type of _____?
Sign Stimuli
An example of sign stimuli initiating a fixed action pattern in sexual selection behavior is seen in the tufts of hair on the legs of male _____?
Wolf Spiders
In a fixed action pattern, profound physiological changes that result in expression of distinct behaviors are known as _____?
Once behaviors of a fixed action pattern are initiated, an entire sequence of steps will automatically occur until completed. These steps are known as a _____?
Motor Program
The mechanism of how an organism behaves with regards to how stimuli are received and transformed into behavioral responses is known as _____ causation.
Within one hundred years the population of Japan will decline by _____?
Within one hundred years the population of Russia will decline by _____?
The environment influences population size by affecting the _____ used by the organisms?
Reproductive Strategies
The production of a large number of offspring by organisms in an environment with unstable resources is called _____?
_____ reproductive strategy is characterized by a low reproductive rate?
The growth in the world human population follows a path commonly observed in all living organisms called _____?
Exponential Growth
In 1979 the Chinese government introduced the _____ per family policy with the slogan "Late, Long, and Few?"
Unmarried youth in Japan are knon as _____?
Parasite Singles
In a country that has excellent heathcare and abundant resources the predicted reproductive strategy is _____?
By 2050 the African population will be _____ the size of Europe's?
_____ is the number one cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa?
When faced with a high infant mortality rate a population will use the _____ reproductive strategy?
The population of the world is predicted to be _____ in 2050?
9-11 Billion
Even though the brain makes up only _____ percent of the body weight, it uses _____ percent of the body's energy supply?
2% 20%
Basic functions of nerves have remained essentially unchanged for _____ million years?
West Nile fever and Japanese encephalitis are examples of diseases caused by _____?
Research has demonstrated that the _____ is the processing center in the brain for short-term memory?
An average human brain weighs _____?
3 Pounds
The technique known as _____ can detect a constant stream of electrical signals?
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Brain imaging techniques such as _____ and _____ can easily visualize damage to different regions of the brain?
The brain cannot survive more than a few minutes without _____ and _____?
Oxegyn Glucose
_____ cells are operated by a combination of electrical currents and chemical transmitters?
Neurotransmitters are released into the _____ when released by the axon?
Synaptic Cleft
The main avenue that we use to acquire information about the external world is _____?
Contrary to popular belief, we do not see with our eyes, but actually with our ____?
90% of all information that enters our eyes is recognized only by our _____?
Our ability to focus our vision is dependent on muscles changing the shape of the _____?
Incoming images are sharply focused on the back surface of the eye known as the _____?
To cushion it against external pressure and shock, the eye is filled with a gelatinous liquid known as the _____?
Vitreous Humor
The cells lining the retina that are responsible for sensing monochrome vision are known as _____ cells?
Visual processing is a complex process that involves up to _____ of the human brain?
Almost 2/3 of all neurons in the human brain are located in the "mammalian brain," otherwise known as the _____?
Cerebral Cortex
Basic physiological processes such as breathing and digestion are controlled by the _____?
Brain Stem
The human midbrain, which is involved in the fight or flight response, is also known as the _____ brain?
The portion of the brain where visual information is processed is known as the _____?
Visual Cortex
The visual cortex is located in the _____ lobe of the brain?
The left occipital lobe receives visual information from the _____ eye?
Blind sight results not from the primary visual pathways involving the visual cortex but through another pathway found in the _____ brain?
Reptilian or Midbrain
The ability of athletes to sense other players and make passes without looking is a result of exceptional _____?
Blind Sight
In humans, language originates in the ______ side of the brain while motor skills originate in the _____ side?
Left Right
The bundle of nerve cells that carries visual information from the eye to the visual cortex is known as the _____?
Optic Nerve
Memory that allows us to remember a phone number just long enough to make a call is known as _____ memory?
As seen in Jeremy's case, the portion of the brain responsible for short-term memory is the _____?
The type of memory that results from visual, auditory, or olfactory input is known as _____?
Long-term memory results from a process known as LTP, which stands for ______?
Long Term Potentiation
Long-term memory is stored in the columns of neurons found in the ______?
Cerebral Cortex
THe part of the brain responsible for integrating short-term memory and long-term memory is the _____ lobe?
The type of memory that we have conscious awareness of accessing is known as _____ memory?
Declarative or Explicit
The type of declarative memory that is associated with words and numbers is known as _____ memory?
The type of declarative memory that is associated with emotion and sensation is known as _____ memory?
Episodic or Autobiographical
The type of memory that is acquired and recalled subconsciouly is known as _____ memory?
Procedural or Implicit
Procedural memory is usually associated with motor activities and is acquired through ______ of an activity?
In the early to mid 1900's, people with mental illness were given a treatment where their frontal lobes were destroyed, a procedure known as prefrontal _____?
The large hippocampi found in London cab drivers are indicators of better than average _____ memory?
As seen in the case of Bill the lawyer, the ability to think ahead and and predict consequences of one's actions exists in the _____ lobe of the brain?
The adding on to animal brains during evolution has resulted in the _____ nature of the human brain?
Sensory memory generally lasts for less than _____?
One Second
If not processed further into long-term memory, short- term memory only lasts for a few _____?
In the 1950's, the drug ______ was developed to help allergies but was found to have a profound effect on people with psychotic diseases?
Chloropromazine, thorazine
______ therapy, where an electrical current is passed through the brain and acts as a reset mechanism, is still used today to treat patients with severe depression who fail to respond to all other treatments?
______ is a type of mental illness where the patient suffers from severe mood swings of extreme highs and extreme lows?
Manic Depression
During a depressive epidsode, the production of the neurotransmitter _____ is deficient?
During a manic depression low episode, the production of the neurotranmitter _____ is deficient?
_____ a class of drugs, were developed to prevent the removal of serotonin in the synapse?
Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRIs
Alzheimer's disease results from the accumulation of protein aggregates in the _____?
The brains of Alzheimer's patients have characteristic _____ plaques and _____, which will prevent neural transmission and eventually cause cell death?
Amyloid, Protein Fibrils

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