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AP Mod vocab 2


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the upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature)
Edmund Burke
member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France, which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought
politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles
Cahier de doleances
list of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789
John Calvin
French Theologian who established a theocracy in Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination
Albert Camus
French existentialist who stated that in spite of the general absurdity of human life, individuals could make rational sense out of their own existence through meaningful personal decision making
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815
Carlsbad Decrees
repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities
Cat and Mouse Act
law that released suffragettes on hunger strikes from jail and then rearrested and jailed them again
Catherine de Medicis
the wife of Henry II of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons
Catherine the Great
an "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs
Catholic Emancipation Bill
act enabling Catholics to hold public office for the first time in England
Count Cavour
Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification in Italy
Benvenuto Cellini
A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise
Charles II
Stuart king during the Restoration, following Cromwell's Interregnum
Charles I
Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was subsequently executed
Charles V
Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands
the secret police under Lenin and his Communist Party
Church Statute of 1721
a Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members (lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to the czar
classical liberalism
a middle-class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophes, the French revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its goals were self-gov't, a written constitution, natural rights, limited suffrage and a laissez-fair economy
Code Napoléon
the codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France
the finiancial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies
Cold War
an intense conflict between the superpowers using all means short of military might to achieve their respective ends
Christopher Columbus
first European to sail to the West Indies in 1492
Committee of Public Safety
the leaders under Robespierre who organized the defensies of France, conducted foreign policy and centralizied authority during the period 1792-1795
Common Market
another name for the European Economic Community, which created a free-trade area among the Western European countries
Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Pius VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the gov't
Condcordat of Bologna
treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right for the gov't to nominate all French bishops and abbots
Author of Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind
a mercenary soldier of a political ruler
Conservative Party
formerly the Tory Party, headed by Disraeli in the 19th century
Constitutional Democrats
also known as the Cadeets, the party of liberal bourgeouisie in Russia
the theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects, and the state governed according to laws
Continental System
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding importation of British goods
Nicolaus Compernicus
Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe
Corn Laws
legislation enacted in 1815 that imposed a tariff on imported grain and was a symbolic protection of aristocratic landholdings. They were repealed in 1846
Hernando Cortez
conqueror of the Aztecs (1519-1521)
road work; obligation of French peasants to landowners
Council for Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon)
an economic alliance, founded in 1949, to coordinate the economic affaires of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries
Council of People's Commissars
the new gov't set up by Lenin following the Red Guard seizure of gov't buildings in Nov. 1917
Council of Trent
congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545-1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconscile with the Protestants
coup d'état
overthrow of those in power
Crimean War
conflict between Russia and Turkey ostensibly waged by Russia to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire; in actuality, to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia
Oliver Cromwell
principal leader and a gentry member of the Puritans in Parliament
Crystal Night (Krystallnacht)
the Nov. 1938 destruction, by Hitler's Brown Shirts and mobs, of Jewish shops, homes and synogogues
Charles Darwin
British scientist whose Origin of Species proposed the theory of evolution based on his biological research
Dawes Plan
the provision of U.S. loans to Germany to help meet reparation payments, which were also reduced
Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early 19th century
Decembrist revolt
the 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligents) to set up a constitutional monarchy or a republic. the plot failed, but the ideal remained.
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
document that embodied the liberal revolutionary ideals and general principles of the philosophes' writings
the collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence
Defenestration of Prague
the hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, the setting of the 30 yrs. War
the belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny
René Descartes
deductive thinker whose famous saying, "I think, therefor I am," challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures

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