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race / ethnicity part 2

Race & Ethnicity, Vincent Mikkelsen, Florida State University, Exam 2


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Manifest Destiny
we are destined by god to spread out across country and conquer individuals that might be out there
compromise of 1877
gave money to south (so they could rebuild...reconstruction)
how to keep warm on frontier?
burn cow dung, buffalo chips, cut open horse and climb inside
Lynching symbolizes?
an attack on an entire race, inferiority, fear
1954 supreme court decison
fixed segregation
drive calf into ground by using horns or head
Strange Fruit
Abel Meerole, performed by billy holiday in 1939
15th amendment violated by..
Mississippi plan
attacked immigrants and railroad people, put up in their own fort, killed in sandcreek massacre
Charles Houstan
dean of black law school and raised lawyers to fight segregation; joined head of naacp legal squad
based on blood, you are bad
The Yellow Era
1915, time period of Japanese
amount of Horses in NYC
Frank sinatra
viewed as a criminal because he is italian; but he raised money for the war; arrested for trying to seduce a married women, charges dropped
overgeneralization of italians, dark, catholic, connected with diego, also associated with mexicans and spain
italians owning a ship?
no way, they could blow something up with it
Fiorello Laguardia
one of most famous politicians; italian and half jewish; mayor but had to dispell stereotypes about him by going after the mob; gioanni had same thing
took land that didn't belong to them and put money in general allotment fund; plundering
Timezones were created by
Railroad company created..
Black Kettle
Leader of Shyan, tried to convince shyan to bend to will of govt..they wouldn't listen to him and they revolted
without paperwork for any immigrant, associated with italians
Ida B Wells
Southern Horrors, 1892 - The Red Book - record of lynchings (school teacher from memphis)
immigrants didnt live past what age
3-4 years old (lack of infant and child care)
Williams Simmons
New leader of KKK, history instructor in Georgia
Scientific Racism
looking at biology or physical characterisitics to define race, stereotype (predict criminal based on their physical characteristics)
Transcontinental railroad
began in 1862, completed 1869 in Utah..from chicago to the west..where east meets west in Utah
After WWI, the germans
germans were portrayed as black after the war, 'bad'
problems with immigration act of 1924
old census data used...1890s..before most of the new immigrants arrived
pearl harbor attack
1941; changed how we look at chinese, now they are allies
FDR said about the fear of italians
he doesnt think they are dangerous, but it is a public relations program, to make people think tehy are safer than they actually are..
italians in internment camps
3,000; they have curfews which causes problems for bakers
Blackhand letters
system of extortion, threat of kidnapping, signed 'the black hand' italians targeted but not as frequent as media describes
thind v. u.s.
not white but not asian, indian; said because his skin isnt white and neither is culture, he isn't white
Chamber Pot
used to dispose of human waste in tenements in U.S.
Congress and the anti lynching bill
they introduced it 5 years after white and fdr's meeting, but Fdr wouldnt endorse it; caused walter white to resign from his post in some position
Cultivation out west
more acres set aside in two decades than 250 years (kansas, nebraska, tx...)
Who built railroad?
Immigrants (east: irish, west: chinese)
Immigration act of 1924
AKA 'National Origins Act'..use quotas of immigrants already there to decide how many to let in..only 2% of already in u.s.
hate groups against jews
1930s, over 100 hate groups; they were blamed for the depression
second generation of immigrants, they are born here and we can't send them back
Roy Wilkins
talks about segregation in florida and even tallahassee
Manchurian invasion took place when
docile and loyal, protective of the white house
Pro Americanism
what is good about america should continue, what is bad should stop
Irish priorities
political power
horse waste
gallon of urine, 10-20 lb of feces per day
houstan's views on education
to desegregate, start in schools
Rape of Nanking
1937, japan destroyed them brutally and vial
Leo Frank
Murdered his white secretary, arrested, killed by mob
KKK founder and date
1915, Nathanial Bedford Forest
Jesse Owens
(black)Berlin olympics, 1936; beat them and the u.s. was rooting for htem since they hated the germans more
germans in internment camps
11,000; are held as collateral to get back prisoners of war
14th amendment violated by..
lynching and segregation
General Allotment Act problems
if you didnt want it, required to sell land and put money in allotment fund..natives had no control over fund and couldnt get money for 25 years, massive plundering occurred of the fund; also names were to pets and people who couldnt claim the land
first generation of immigrants to come to u.s., we may not want
Grand Imperial Wizard
supersticious kkk hierarchy
Homestead act
1862: free land for all (40-160 acres of land given for free to anyone willing to settle or farm on it, after you prove it, you own land, takes 5 years)
KKK first and second origination
Biloxi, TN; 2nd in Stone Mountain, Georgia
no need to rely on money, no cattle..just need the will to work a lot
14th amendment
citizenship..we all are citizens
making whiteness
book about segregation (white people, even poor, are better than blacks)
Most crime leaders were
Eastern european jews
13th amendment violated by..
share cropping and ongoing debt
Japan feels inferior because?
chinese exclusion act made them feel inferior, made them look bad
Open intimidation of blacks
KKK members were police officers and mayors etc
german ethnicity
doesnt really matter, as long as german american
houses made out of what on frontier?
Mud, dirt, sod
jewish mobster who killed many people..shot stereotype of jews counting money down
General Allotment Act
Also known as Dawes Act (because Senator Dawes Proposed it): 80 acre plots given to indians so they could develop and become capitalists
helped us move west, changes society, people couldn't move more than 5 miles away from their birth place, now they can
Benjamin Franklin
said germans should be watched
problems with homestead act
excludes blacks (they weren't elgible for citizenship in 1862), given to german immigrants who weren't in country yet
Horse culture
grandfather clause
from Louisiana - Mississippi affected poor whites (wasn't meant to) so they said if your grandfather voted, you could also (b4 13-15th amend)
% of italians in mafia
5% (not much supposably)
Bennet Law
1890, in order to be a public school, english must be taught 16 weeks out of year
Sandcreek Massacre
most controversial and violent incidents out west, indians brutally murdered
KKK gained momemtum through
Birth of a nation film
Woodrow Wilson
Backed Griffith on Birth of a Nation film
13th Amendment
Abolition of Slavery
Bill Picket
Black Cowboy, new way to bring down calf and biting lip of calf
Eleanor Roosevelt
frustrated by lack of support, wanted to resign, especially after marianne anderson wasnt allowed to sing in the hall
caused house of reps to pass anti lynching bill
2 blacks killed in 1937 by blow torch; fillabusters held it up, president silent, bill withdrawn
Unprecedented Race Hatred occurred in..
turn of century
kkk Clan chapter is in
every state during 1920
Hideki Tojo
general of japan, he was the idea of japanese
When did effects of slavery end?
not in 1865 or 1867, linked to time period of segregation
Joe Lewis
moved to detroit in 1927, black champion boxer
fear of foreigners
Marianne Anderson
black singer that mrs roosevelt liked and had sing at events, was denied singing at white house so sung for 75,000 at lincoln memorial instead
most important to be american?
Ethiopian delineators
white people who pretended to be black
KKK targets
african americans and also immigrants and jews
German language in public schools
could have been dominant in 1830s if enough parents in district requested it (50%)...changed in 1880s because fear of foreigners
Ocowa Ozawa v the U.S.
1922; an issei; denied citizenship even though wife and children are white (born here), court says he is biologically different even though he is 'white'; results in citizens of india having citizenship taken away
15th amendment
political representation, all can vote
Cable Act 1922
any citizen who marries an inelgible can lose citizenship
Sacco and Vanzetti
linked to a robbery in massachusett that killed someone in 1927; normal upstanding citizens, witnesses say they werent at robbery, still executed, state withdraws charges later but too late
secret meeting where kkk pope is named in puff of white smoke?
kkk clan chapters include what groups of people
not just poor, but middle class, elite, police officers, mayors
group used for labor after immigration act
W.E.B. Du Bois
founder of NAACP, wrote Souls of Black Folk - 1903 - detailed record of lynchings
on standing rock reservation when dawes act proposed, clashed with sitting bull about keeping natives traditional, created ghost dance
Immigrant family housing; would take in squatters sometimes to make ends meet
debt relating to share crop system
Grasshoppers on plantation
1870s, one of most dangerous on plantation, swarms of grasshoppers devoured everything, not only crops but people
Central Pacific
California to utah
NAACP view on lynchings
realizes not all are innocent, but it should go through regular court system
Chinese Exclusion act
1882, denied citizenship, renewed in 1892 and in 1902 indefinately, repealed 41 years later
plessy v ferguson
1896..separate but equal..but in 1910 spending got much worse on black education compared to whites
T.G. Rice (1830)- portrayed as innocent, docile black man who likes song and dance
Jim Brandant
1937. Joe lewis fought and beat him...major victory again
14th amendment and Asians problem
says europeans, descendants of africa, born in US are citizens, what about asians?..nope, but if born in u.s., can petition to be citizen
Wounded knee
Located in South Dakota near Wounded Knee Creek. An Indian tribe - the Hunkpapa Sioux - was attacked by 500 US soldiers during the Ritual Ghost Dance. The Indians were massacred, little boys were shot, women running with children were murdered...
IBM responsibilty in wwII
helped build machines for germany
Cattle Raisers out west..
farmers and cattle raisers pushed out by land developers
Birth of A Nation effects
exagerated blacks, made them savage like, made people regret emancipation, incited & justified racial violence
Protocols of the elders of zion
russian place that said the entire world bank system is controlled by a few old jewish men
black coyote
deaf native that didn't turn over gun at wounded knee massacre, resulted in firefight and massacre
Joe Dimaggio
nickname jolton joe; he enlisted
Mississippi plan
took away right to vote, have to pay payroll tax, literacy competency tests, residency requirements
response to Lance Arnold
baltimore black community marched, lynchings spiked and mob violence hit 6 states in 2 months; NAACP asked President roosevelt to speak out, on dec. 6th, he called it a vial form of murder
Blizzards on frontier
Nebraska, Dakota, caused it to be very cold
Lance Arnold
Hung burned with blowtorch, dragged by car
new immigrants rates
part of last open immigration, only 2% refused (criminals, diseased)
Andrew johnson
gave narrow strip of land to white land owners before hand..the good land
Ellis Island
1892, closed 1954 (nov 12)
Carlisle School
1879, Carlisle, PA, forced reeducation of natives
Primo carnera
1935, italian, joe lewis fought him and it was important because italians threatened to invade ethiopia at same was a major victory for the 'blacks'
Walter White
NAACP, he was able to get info from whites; made his top priority to stop lynching, never got anti lynching bill passed
propoganda during 1930s
John Chivington
1864, formed a militia to track down and kill shyan..couldnt find any so went to Fort lyon or fort wise and killed them all
Gentlemen's agreement
1907-1908: Theodore Roosevelt and Japanese Government agreed to let a small amount of japanese in and in return u.s. wouldn't put a bad label on japanese
Chinese fighting in war
Birth Of A Nation film director
D.W. Griffith directed it,
Jim Thorpe
Native Am. Who attended Carlisle school & in 1912 rep'd US in Stockholm Olympics where he won the gold in decathalon & pentathalon
individual who wasn't 100% white
Hate Crime bill passed in
Burt Williams
put on a facade, talked like 'black face'
Birth of a Nation novelist
Hugo Black
named to us supreme court, klan attorney from Birmingham, successfully defended christian preacher who murdered catholic priest
Sitting Bull
was a Sioux holy man, originally supported govt intervention then alligned with wovoka, killed by police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him (dec 15, 1890) and prevent him from supporting the Ghost Dance movement
Birth Of A Nation,,about
reconstruction, northerners are bad guys, kkk are good guys that come to the rescue
diseases in NYC
caused by lack of cleanliness
Brooklyn Dodgers
originally called Brooklyn Trolly Dodgers
Ghost Dance
symbolic dance created by Wovoka in a dream that unites natives in saying the white man can't hurt them
lynchings reported between 1900-1930
chinese nationality
important, but race is paramont because asians cant be citizens
Italian priorities
Executive order 9066
makes it legal, constitutional to round up citizens based on ethnicity if they show a clear and emimminent threat; can be placed in one area or shipped somewhere to an internment camp; upheld by 2 court cases
Eleanor Roosevelt
activily supported NAACP
Railroad company embraced settlers..
to protect landlines and railroad lines, to get people out there and build it up
Lynchings in New Orleans
irish police officer murdered, 12 italian immigrants hung overnight, cops ok with it, theodore roosevelt honors it
de jure
what is supposed to occur by law
Ku Klux Klan stands for
Our close family
immigration stats
italians: pre1920: 158,000; post: 5,802; Greeks..17,600, 307; good immigrants like germans? 51,000
jews in the orphanage
1938, 100,000 stuck in it, bill submitted to let 20,000 come in..fdr wouldnt pass it, ss st. louis turned away, sat in front of miami while appeals, returned to europe and england, france and holland took the passengers (1000)
Children Brute Characters
shown as furry animals
massive plundering of the best land
supposed to wait until april 22 to get land, some left early to Oklahoma and gained the nickname the sooners
slaughter of wildlife and ecology
white settlers killed natives source of food for fun
Southern states popular with
Americanization Efforts
ideas that you can help and educate the immigrants
Max Shmaly round 2
came at a pivotal time since WW2 was going on, hitler and max were good friends and when joe beat him america triumphed; nazism was put down (1937)
Denver, Colorado
settlers were paid to bring skin or parts of natives
de facto
what is occurring
hodgekit cannon
hundreds of bullets per second
Union Pacific
eastern to west in nebraska
a troop of performers
The Prostrate State
1874, by historian James S. Pike
Joe Zeppi
wanted to see son who joined military; can't get on base because not a u.s. citizen
Treaty of Fort Wise
govt moves shyans to a river in colorado if they agree to be peaceful
Nebraska, 1919
Germany was enemy in WWI, so nebraska put down laws about allowing german to be spoken
New Immigrants
1880s-1920s, southern and eastern europe,italy and russia,jew and catholic, hungary; male, poor, young
yellow bird
priest who started the ghost dance at wounded knee that resulted in the massacre of several hundred indians
Walter White and FDR's meeting
1934, FDR wouldnt promise public endorsement on anti lynching bill
grace hale
making whiteness, 1998
more english in jails than the
Birth of a Nation
written by Thomas Dickson
Ethnic Notions
by Marlin Riggs
'Not a chinamans chance'
chinamen built railroads and received the most life threatening jobs
Max Shmaly
Joe Lewis's new fighter, beat joe, major defeat to black community
Charles Houstan Court case
1935. took university of maryland to court, when murray was denied acceptance to the white law school, won against them

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