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Race and Ethnicity, Exam 3


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Russian Refugees
Say "I Defect", given political asylum, Usually portrayed as artists, ballerinis, scientists, Now cold war is over, they are portrayed as mafia
Leonard Peltier
fled to Canada, brought back; He was a criminal, but evidence is clear that he wasn't involved in it (wounded knee shootout after with fbi)
Southern Manifesto
group of anti integration of politicians
UFW formed in
Lyndon Johnson
LJ: one of three senators who refused to sign the southern manifesto's refusal of brown v board
Wounded Knee II
Pine ridge reservation (right next to wounded knee); AIM put forth a program that wanted to remove dick Wilson; ; They want a traditional force of elders in the area, not an assimilated one; Goons break up the rallies against dick Wilson; AIM decided to physically take him out of office (feb-may 1973) (seized his offices); States police come to assist; Then national guard is called in (101st airborne); Only 2 native Americans died; A peace talk ensues, they leave as long as fed govt investigates dick Wilson; 2 years after, they wait for victory, politically they never get one;
it is believed that this is the only thing that gets the government involved and nation's attention
McCaran-Walter Act - 1952
Trying to raise the quotas placed on Asians; Unfair to use quotas on individuals who weren't allowed to enter the U.S. at the time; If you're trying to enter u.s, you can't use your mother colony's quotas (must use the country)
Stokely Carmichael
Organization...Preparing for the future
Bus Boycotts
Citizen's council was formed to take away politicians who supported the movement; Supreme court indigted 90 black leader back fired and went to the press; happened in Tallahassee too, required them to shut down buses because of lack of revenue and that hurt other businesses
Voters Rights Bill of 1965
rise of black power, More people are turning to self defense and sensitivism to racism, brought to attention by stokely carmichael??
Fish Ins
Alijah Muhammed
takes over after W.D. Fard leaves (Nation of Islam);
National Farm Workers Association
founded by Cesar Chavez; Got healthcare for farm workers, pensions was given a boost by united farm workers (UFW)
Uptight - 1968
Portray black separatist groups like the IRA members were shown ; Took an old ira film called 'the informer'
Black Panther Party For Self Defense
founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton; focused on civil rights, self defense and protection from police brutality; Newton wanted to create an organization that protected them from the enemy...; The enemy was also criminal blacks (drug dealers)..anyone that made black power look bad
Refugees: points of origin
Baltic States, Cuba, S.E. Asia. USSR
Displaced Persons act - 1948
Trying to help those individuals fleeing Europe or pacific.; Specifically looking at the Baltic States; Escaping anti Semitism and communism---------------LOOPHOLE: Congressmen states that at least 30% of these individuals have to be farmers, jews can't own land in europe, they don't want jews..NOT PASSED
JDL formed
Brown power
mexicans force in movement
Daffy Duck
Portrayed as a black man
Wounded Knee II shootout after
June 26, 1975 a shootout occurs leaving 2 fbi and one member of aim dead; They blame 3 members of aim, but cases are thrown out of court (not enough evidence)
American Indian Movement - Minneapolis, 1968 - Intent: Native American Pride and Self-Defense; Trribes from all over country come to this visit;
Chicano Pride
Mexican american students weren't allowed to take upper level classes..only allowed to take shop, classes like that; ; Walkouts in las angeles assisted by Black Panthers They were beaten and arrested
Effects of riots
Migration away from inner city (Income leaves city, schools suffer (lack of taxes)), Report on national advisory commission on civil disorders (states racism still a problem, put money into inner city), Polarizes nation (white against black nation) (whites that were sympathetic movement feel betrayed, people that were against the movement now uses this to justify their racism) ----Riots weren't a race issue, was a class issue
Montgomery Bus Boycott - 1955
Montgomery, Alabama - Rosa Parks - Myth about her being little old lady was true...but she was also a member of the naacp and this was kind of planned...admin for Montgomery chapter; right individual (unblemished record); already in the black section; originally about separate but equal; MLK's first exposure
Brown v Board - 1954
Ending segregation? Dejure; Tepeka, Kansas (board of tepeka, Kansas); But aimed at everyone..virginia, Delaware; No longer is segregation allowed / segregation de jure is outlawed; SECOND RULING: With all deliberate speed ..becomes segregation de facto; takes a long time..over 20 years; SOUTHERN MANIFESTO REFUSED TO COMPLY WITH SUPREME COURT
Freedom Summer - 1964
it was to ensure the that time in Mississippi, only 2% of blacks could vote; Some people didn't want whites to participate in coalition to get voters going (they didnt want to give credit to the whites);Violence ensued at Philadelphia, Mississippi; 3 demonstrators missing (2 whites ..michal shwarner and Andrew Goodman, one black student james chney), found dead, killed by police and kkk, mlk claimed them to be martyrs
C.K. Steel Plaza
named after a reverend from w.v., it is located in Tallahassee and it is named after him because he organized a bus boycott in Tallahassee
War Brides Act - 1945
Legally allowed families of servicemen to come into u.s.; Over 125,000 families allowed in
Makes all people look bad in low class (it is a class issue)
Cesar Chavez
Wanted to do stuff for Field worker / farmer Used MLK's ideology (wanted to mobilize individuals and organize) Tried to get equality for field workers / farmers Served during wwII His parents were Mexican Americans Founded national farm workers association His idea of success was having equality Implemented the marches in CA When people refused to work in fields, they would be arrested and/or beat Used tactics of Ghandi (hunger strikes) Met with kennedy; He died at 66 (1993); received an award from mexico for helping
Project C
Confrontation, Children, used Use children as demonstrators; Using them, creates sympathy, also allows family to continue..if the father is arrested, family is stuck, if children are, the cause is still active and the family can continue
Three The Hard Way - 1974
One of final forms of the genre; Nfl great jim brown, big stars; Group of white supremiscists put a serium in water supply and it kills only blacks;
Hart Celler Act - 1965
Race, Nationality and color NOT a factor of who gets in U.S.; Immediate Relatives given priority (before individuals that had a skill); National Quotas OUT, Continental Ceilings IN; N American / S American IN; 500,000 mexicans deported out of U.S.
(Disenti) Ebor
from the first wave of cuban refugees..he went to Tampa, created Ebor turned into the central of tampa's economy
Superfly - 1972
Gordon parks junion directed it; Hero of this film is a pimp / drug dealer - his enemy is white society;
Fred Hampton Dies
Spanish American War - 1880s-1890s
first wave of cuban immigration to u.s.; Cuba wanted to move away from spain, and wanted to adopt u.s. politics;
Birmingham church bombing - september, 1963
4 girls killed (14 yr olds and 11yr old); 3 people convicted (Robert Chamblice, 10 yr later; Thomas Blanton, Robert Cherry); their family is associated with racism even if they aren't
Going on old stereotypes to make fun of them; Makes individuals always represent a group in a using black slang all the time to reinforce the stereotype;
Fort Chaffe, Arkansas
Marielitos primarily sent there, To prove that you are a political dissident and not a criminal, They were interrogated, put in camps, then maybe released, Elvisy Presley (getting his haircut pic) was stationed there, Castro was trying to see how the U.S. would react to a large group of poor, dark complexion individuals; KKK rallied outside there, sometimes attacked after leaving;
Richard Oaks
wanted to sieze alcatrez to call attention to native Americans; Member of Mohawk tribe and aim
Influenced so much exploration of the history..during black power movement; Written by alex haily; He also wrote superfly tnt and the autobiography of Malcolm x
Nicaragua, Haiti
can we give these countries refugee status? no because they aren't communist and we don't want to look bad if they turn communist (even if they are having major problems)
Black Panthers - Chicago
Fbi fears that at any moment there will be a racial war in Chicago; People came for a party, stayed overnight; Fbi thought that the racial war was going to start the next day; They raided the apartment at 4am; 2 are dead (one of them was sleep when he was shot?); Fred Hampton was shot to death...unarmed; Civil rights movement turned into the only way to fight was with guns ...FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS THE ENEMY,,THAT IS THE NEW THING///NOW IT IS NOT ONLY A SOUTH THING BUT ENTIRE NATION PROBLEM
Fred Hampton
Leader of black panther party in Chicago 3 years after black panthers were formed on west coast(it spread)
the right to fish - Indians, in NW, were allowed to fish on lakes and then it was taken away because businesses wanted to; So they would sit there and mobilize there until the cops came
Winston Churchill
prime minister of great Britain during WWII
Malcolm X: insight
he goes to mecca, Sees differences and now reevaluates race (he now is friendly with whites); Says whites can be trusted, just white u.s. citizens cant be trusted (because of their policies; came back in 64' assasinated in 65'; was never associated with violence but with the threat of violence and self defense;
Stokely Carmichael
a voice of youth and the angry..involved in civil rights movement; might say that for years, blacks have been murdered and killed, noone did 2 white guys die and things get done; Part of Loundes County Freedom Organization, he calls for organization and black power (he is concerned with what happens afterwards, when they leave)
AIM formed
organized the march on Washington
Red Power
American Indian force in movement
Laurie Pritchett - Albany, Georgia
Police commissioner decided to arrest them instead of beating them. this is where it came to a stalemate; a hault; no violence
Joe Jitsu
Sidekick of dick tracy..; mocked Japanese American and Asians...; shows the hypocrisy of it
Mobilization...traditional civil rights
Rodnell Collins
Malcolm x's nephew; Biography of Malcolm x, titled '7th child'; Says the documentary was to place fear in white citizens and persuade other blacks not to join them; Propaganda against nation of islam;
Refugee Act - 1980
Targets others..cuba, SE tracked, given priority because escaping
Refugees protected?
Baltics, YES, Cubans, first wave, YES (c 1959, South East Asians, Yes), Mexicans, No; Cubans, Second Wave, c. 1980, YES with some problems (had to prove); Haitians and Salvadorans? YES; Russians? NO, until the wall comes down
films that make blacks look bad
"The Hate that Hate Produced" - 1959
The nation first got it's sight of nation of islam through this film
Shaft in Africa - 1973
Shows the exploitation image of black males ...shaft 2
Marielitos - 1980
criminals of cold war, Castro told u.s. to come and take the refugees..if communism is so bad; So they gave them all the people in institutions..but a lot of them are bad; Came in large numbers; Came by boat, not greeted happily; Most go to liberty tower in Miami; Some go to texas, new Orleans, new york, new jersey AND (we don't associate with Cuban immigration) Arkansas (1 in 5 ended up there);
W.D. Fard
Founder of nation of islam; from new zealand; goes by wallace d fard, wallace d farute; He was trying to instill black pride (only allowed blacks or middle eastern, targeted blacks..blacks went along with it because they felt wronged by the govt)
Lerone Bennet
Denounced Sweetback's baadassss song; wrote for eviney magazine denouncing this film in 'the emancipation orgasm'; Denounced it as fantasy, not revolutionary
March on Washington - august 28, 1963
intention of this was to get a civil rights act, 250,000 people showed up; MLK spoke, JFK said there should be a civil rights act; signed by Lyndon Johnson (kennedy's v.p.)
Leaonard peltier
Al Gore Senior
AGS: one of three senators who refused to sign the southern manifesto's refusal of brown v board
Core, SCLC, Junius Griffin, NAACP
they form a coalition against blaxploitation films; Claims it is destroying youth and perpetuating stereotypes; He doesn't want these to continue so they don't do harm to the youth
Anne Moody
member of civil rights movement from jackson, mississippi, participated in woolworth's lunchcounter sit in
Rev. James Beel
Stopped demonstration in birmingham, alabama to prevent riot
Lyndon Johnson
mad at results of black power, doesn't invite MLK to conference in 1968
Sit Ins - 1960
Greensboro, NC - 4 students defy segregation, sit at segregated lunch counters in department store, then more show up, 4th day 300 show up; they are arrested and beat; continues until they allow spread to other cities (FSU and famu even took part here)
Jewish Defense League - 1966
Rabbi Meir Kahane - Similar to tactics of black panther (pride and self defense)1968 in brookly, by 1922 had 15,000 members; 1966 - oakland California; became more radical when rabbi left, splintered off into radical organizations and made fbi list of terrorist organizations
Dick Wilson
he assimilated (he was native American); lead politician of pine ridge reservation (called a demoga, corrupt); Rules with a heavy hand, his own police force (the goons), backed by FBI; He lets local white thugs do whatever to native Americans, corrupt (accepts money etc)
UFW March on capitol
The idea that a white superhero needs a black sidekick; Paternalism..that a.a.'s need someone to look after them; Seen in miami vice, different strokes, annie Seen in miami vice, different strokes, annie
BPP Formed
SCLC - southern christian leadership conference or CORE (Congress on racial equality) -----associated with religion, but core is more mainstream
Island of Alcatrez
closed in 1963, In 1969, Richard Oaks and 14 others officially discover it.; Then, 100 native Americans show up; They are allowed to stay because the govt doesn't think they will stay; They stay crews show up, it gains popularity; 19 months later, federal marshalls come...but radical members of aim have already left ; so when they get there it is more homeless people, drug users, etc..makes the movement look badIt was a political success...sent out message that aim wants delivered (crime rates, alcoholism, etc)
Black Power Movement - 1968
Black panther party formed...after voting rights and integration; their enemy is white police officer; where are white members of this group
Sweet Sweetback's Baadassss Song - 1971
first Black Ploytation film; Melvin Van Peebles; He was the director, writer and star of the film; He personifies black power movement; Cost 150,000 to make, made 10,000,000 in first year; It was very successful; Spawned a genre from this film (major Hollywood protections)
racial disorders - 1966
134 racial disorders in 9 months; 33 states had to call national guard
Wounded Knee II
Nation of Islam
founded in 1930s; They actually didn't want integration, they liked segregation; originally called cult of muslims; Nation of Islam appeals to people in the NE, major metropolitan areas; headquarters centered in Chicago; But mosques opened up all over the place like harlem and Detroit
Civil Rights Movement: Objectives
end segregation (1st), ensure voting rights (2nd) (should have been done in 1860s but loopholes prevented it..called SECOND RECONSTRUCTION ERROR)
MLK assasination - 1968
blew riots out of proportion, spread across country
Huey Newton
Favors the film (sweetbacks'); Said it was a true black film; Glorified it In his film 'he wont beat me); Bill cosby donated for the film
SHAFT - 1971
Was changed from the success of sweetback, role was written for a white actor, they changed it; ; They added slang and all that into it to make it more appealing to younger black viewers; Richard Roundtree
Post Castro Immigration - 1959
castro takes over in cuba, Average immigrant that came over was wealthy and had the potential to make a lot of money...upper middle class and more educated..would come over as a family, lighter in complection; Come over in small numbers
Student non violent coordinating committee
North Korea
Which Korea is bad (not democracy)?
Civil Rights Act of 1964
finally passed after freedom summer, young start to doubt non violence, start using self defense,
Refugee Act - 1953
Baltic states and korea given relief to come to u.s. through this act
Islamic Education
Religion was seen as a mystic, spiritual group; People say it was for W.D. Fard to make money
Desi Arnez
dated a white woman
Blacula - 1973
Digressed,,,went into strange and unrelated to blacks; Take any old cliché or plot, put blacks and slang in there, it becomes blaxploitation films...false and stupid; Baxenstein 72'
Malcolm X
(most wellknown, outspoken, charismatic member of nation of islam..NOT LEADER); Born Malcom Little in Omaha, Nebraska; father was murdered (preacher), mother institutionalized, malcom is angry at whites and blames them for parents demise; gets into crime; arrested, converted to islam in jail by brother; believed whites and blacks shouldn't integrate; self defense, Called king and civil rights movement cowards RE: burmingham and children hit by firehoses; suspended from nation of islam because he discredited it by laughing at jfk assasination
Yellow Power
Asians force in movement
Arsenio Hall
Looks specifically about core audience
Puyallup fish-ins - 1964
Bob Satiacum was a tribe leader who was arrested at this fish in, it was overturned by surpeme court
Eugene Bull Connor - Birmingham, Alabama
a new place to bring the civil rights movement, he is a Noted white supremisicits, racist, police commissioner; place is full of racial violence, says they didn't act violently enough with demonstrators; civil rights movement use children as demonstrators; police dogs, fire hoses (100lb of pressure), story told all over world (then the u.s. worried what the world thought of them), it was stopped by rev. james beel (prevented a riot)
Students walk out
Massive riots
alex haily
wrote roots, superfly tnt, autobiography of malcom x
Iceberg Slim
Pimp, and poetry (ice cube and T got their names from him); Austin powers..; Undercover brother
Civil Rights Movement: Details
black lead, black in spirit, validates black activism, Cut ground away from moderate politicians ( You are either seen as with the movement or against middle), Jim Crow will put up a fight (when violence ensues), Focus on when average citizens will make a difference
Black Power
it's about culture;aftermath of the civil rights movement (2nd wave); loss of direction;
Civil Rights Act
Haki R. Madhubuti
Was for black power movement, but came out against the film (baadasss), Thought it was a money making, fantasy
Watts, 1965
Southern CA - Markette Fried pulled over and arrested, altercation began; riots began, 30 deaths, 60,000 people affected by it (lack of organization, laws), 30,000 people arrested; spread to detroit, newark
The Lost Man - 1969
They wanted an important black poydye; He wasn't really viewed as a radical

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