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ITS 201


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European Coal and Steel Community
Germany, France, Italy, Benelux
common market--common pricing, lower tariffs, economic free zone
European Economic Community
Common Market 1957
Treaties of Rome
expanded added more industries and agricultural products and goods
Economic union--reduction of tariffs/barriers free move of capital goods and services
Schehgen Agreement
border control
got ride of controls and free movement of people for tourism, ect
any member of EU can move around w/o passport
Maastrict Treaty/Treat on the European Union
no longer EEC drop economic off--EU
3 pillars)
1. european community, ecnomoic and political integration
2. common foreign policy and security
3. police and judicial cooperation
monetary unit: euro
convergence criteria to the EU
political stable democracy
rule of law
protect minorities
functioning market economy
EU oblligations and acceptance of all EU laws
Import Substitution Industrialization
nationalist strategy
promoted industrialization
international borrowing
created national industries

negative: still dependent on foreign tech.
little economic growth
little incentive
Debt Crisis 1980s
needed loans for ISI
high energy prices
high interest rates
Structural Adjustment Programs
short term loans
conditions designed to balance a nations budget

cut gov. spending
eliminate trade barriers
privatize national industries
devalue national currency


poor suffered
did not reduce LA debt
economic policy taken out of the hands of ind. nations
Alliance for Progress
promote economic and social reform
US help people reform before socialism can spread
NAFTA at 10
created jobs
trade deficiet into surplus
lower or no tariffs, higher productivity lower costs
lessening of gap b/t rich and poor
foreign direct investment up

causes mexico to be dependent on US
industry improvement agriculture declined and loss of arg jobs
no increased standard of living
hugh dispartity b/t north and south
US and Canadian economies are growing at a faster rate
not domestic industry, money goes back to other countries
characteristics of African economy
type-- mining, agriculture, herding and grazing, oil

75% or more of exports
primary products

FDI: low
exceptions in mineral areas or oil areas

Foreign aid and debt
HIPC problems of debt oil crisis

main trading parter is the EU and MIddle east
unequal distribution of wealth
regional economic integration impediments in Africa
dependence on a few primary products
underdevelopment of human capital
poor infrastructure
political instability and corruption
african debt burden
proliferation of regional organizations
Sudan colonial past
North (ethnic arbs and muslims) vs. South (trad african religions and christians)

South wants more power
2 civil wars
1958- south wants more power
1983 oil and islamic gov.

control and access to national resources b/t farmers and herders
Rwanda colonial past
Hutu vs. Tutsi
(more african) vs. (more european)
Hutu revolution b/c belgiums had favorered tutsis and created animosity and left power to them

Hutu Revolution 1959

October war 1990-1993

Arusha Accords
right of return
power sharing
democracy in africa
elections high voter turnout
counted fairly
more info available by internet, cell phones, radio, satellite
democracy already exists in some and is spreading
90 percent held multiparty elections

violence is so high
unstable with most land and people
weak civil society
rural areas--60-90 percent of pop
small amounts of leaders with power and money
no effective means of checks and balances
civil wars
gov bad spending with money given from donors

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