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* borders in 1914- look at the handout

* they were defeated but there was no fighting on German soil. Their population never saw the horrible effects of the war or their military defeated. Led to a great myth later which was exploited by Hitler

* Kaiser and his military leadership were out and a new democratic government, the Weimer Republic, was put in place. The WR would be blamed later for the treaty of Versailles.

* Germany expected a fair peace treaty as indicated by Wilson and his 14 points
* multiple ethnic nation

* their defeat helped increase nationalist movements in the empire
* another multiple ethnic area

* during the war faced revolts from inside (Arabs)

* the OE stretched over 3 continents but was in decline prior to W.W.I

* at the time there was a growth in Turkish nationalism
* not a major plaer but was on Germany's side
The United Kingdom

* defended Belgium and entered the war

* primary concern after the war was their empire and maintaining naval supremacy in the world. Were not as concerned with punishing Germany.

* had fought in the middle east against the Ottoman Empire and made promises to the Arab nationalists who helped them

* overall, W.W.I saw an increase in role played by the dominions (i.e. Canada) who demanded great say in the peace treaty process
* defeated in 1871 by Germany and lost Alsace-Lorriane. Were not please by this and held resentment towards Germany even before W.W.I

* France was the site of much of the trench warfare

* had lost the highest % of its population of all the nations involved in W.W.I

* wanted to punish Germany
* were poorly equipped and led during W.W.I. Led by Tsar Nicholas III

*suffered horrible losses on the eastern front

* would eventually lead to 2 revolutions in Russia. The 1st got rid of the Tsar, the 2nd put the Bolsheviks/communists in charge

* Lenin pulled Russia out of the war in 1917 with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Gave up much land in this treaty but was fortunate that Germany would lose the war and would, in the end, not have to give up much of this territory.

* from 1918-1920 fought a civil war between the communists (reds) and everyone else (whites). The reds won and the Bolsheviks formed the USSR.
* both entered the war late by treaty. Both expected to get some of the spoils of war.

* Rumania was forced out early but Italy played a greater role and expected to gain significant territory primarily out of the Austria-Hungary empire
* was in the process of becoming a great power. Was already a great industrial/economic power

* Started W.W.I in isolationism

* later joined largely due to submarine warfare by Germany

* entry and mobilization spelled the end for Germany. They brought huge resources and fresh troops.

* President Wilson advocated a fair peace based on his 14 points. The U.S. was largely idealist.
Canada, Australia, India- made significant contributions to the war and expected greater autonomy within the British Empire
sought Germany's Island colonies in the Pacific. They needed resources since they were largely without in their own country. Also sought German territory in China and wanted to increase influence there.
wanted to see an end to German influence in China. Did not want to see this territory end up in Japan's hands.
* nationalism was flourishing in many places as the war ended

* many of these groups were distinct with a common culture but had no nation of their own.

* were inspired by Wilson's 14 points that largely focused on self-determination (see Mitchner/Global Forces)
Wilson's 14 points:
-theme was self-determination
-inspired groups who expected the peace to be
based on this
-open and fair treaties
-however these goals conflicted with the interests of some nations
* Lost Territory (see handout) and German people
-include the polish corridor (which was created because it was felt that the reborn Poland needed an access route to the seas), Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, all her colonies which were given as mandates to other nations
-Saar was left independent whose future would later be determined by a plebiscite
-Rhineland was occupied and then demilitarized
-Anschluss with Austria was forbidden
-Germans who were part of Austria-Hungary were left out of Germany in the Sudetenland and included in Czechoslovakia

* military restrictions were placed on Germany. They could have no more than 100,000 soldiers. Were not to have tanks, artillery or submarines. Navy was also restricted.

* had to make reparation payments in the sum of 6,600 million pounds.

* had to accept responsibility for the start of the war through the "war guilt" clause of the treaty

* German reaction was very angry as they viewed these terms as excessively harsh and unfair. The German people felt betrayed. Remember the German people never saw their defeated army or see fighting on German soil.

* however Germany had no choice but to sign or face an invasion by the victorious powers. They had been defeated.

* Germany thought they would not be able to make the reparation payments

* however in many ways Germany was in better shape than other nations after the war. They did not have to rebuild.

* it was the Kaiser and his military leaders that lost the war but the democratic Weimer Republic had to sign the Treaty of Versailles. So they would later be blamed for the unpopular acceptance of this treaty.
* Japan sought control over the German sphere of influence in China

* Japan also wanted Germanys Island colonies in the Pacific (pull down map)

* third demand was a racial equality clause in the League of Nations Charter

* they gave up their 3rd demand for the other 2.

* China felt betrayed when Japan was given control over the Shangtung Peninsula. This action plus the continued meddling in China by western powers, helped push China away from the West.
The Treaties of St.Germain (Austria), Trianon (Hungary) and Neuilly (Bulgaria)
* all treaties were named after suburbs in Paris

* Austria and Hungary were hit even harder than Germany

* lost more land and also had to make reparation payments

* nationalist’s movements were creating new nations out of much of their empire

* Rumania as an ally gained territory and Bulgaria as a defeated nation lost territory

* new Yugoslavia (Slavic nation) was created but it was a difficult marriage as the various Slavic ethnic groups did not always get along

* separate and smaller Austria and Hungary were created

* Anschluss between Germany and Austria was forbidden

* a new Czechoslovakia was created but it contained a significant German population in an area known as the Sudetenland. Remember drawing new borders is hard

* often plebiscites were employed to determine what country people would belong to in these new nations. However they were not always used

* Greece also grew in territory as a result of these treaties

* Italy, who got South Tyrol, Istria and Trieste, did not get all she thought she was entitled to and was promised. They wanted but did not get Dalmaitia and several Aegean Islands. They also claimed the town of Fiume which she was not promised.

* Italy felt betrayed as well and was one of the reasons why the fascists in Italy would take power in the 1920s.
The Treaty of Sevres- Ottoman Empire
* the Ottoman Empire was a vast empire that had stretched from Europe to Africa to Asia. Ottomans were Turks.

* at the time of W.W.I the OE was in decline

* Arab nationalism was on the rise and the Arabs helped the British against the Turks (Lawrence of Arabia)

* Feisal and Lawrence fought the Turks and were in Paris during the peace treaty process. Feisal wanted Syria

* the Arabs supported the British because they believed they were promised self-determination

* the European powers had other plans. They had secretly divided up the OE and the middle east in the controversial Sykes-Picot agreement

* oil was also starting to become an issue and an important resource. The Suez Canal also made this region strategically important. Britain already controlled Egypt at the time

* in the end League of Nations mandates for these emerging nations, basically oversight, were given to France and Britain. France got Syria and Lebanon. Britain got Palestine and Transjordon. Borders were determined in treaty. Mandates were not meant to be permanent and were not viewed by the Europeans as a contradiction to war time promises.

* Iraq, an ethnically diverse new nation of Kurds, Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims, was eventually given to Feisal

* another issue was the promise made to Zionists (Jewish people who sought a return to their historical homeland of Israel) of a Jewish home land in Palestine. This was made by in the Balfour Declaration. This was in direct contradiction to the promise of Arab self-determination. It created great unease in the Arab people who lived in Palestine. Later this area would be and still is one of the greatest areas of conflict in the world.

* Turkey became an independent nation. This would unfortunately involve the massacre or removal of the Armenian people in Turkey.

* the proposed Armenian state would become smaller and eventually part of the USSR

* the proposed Kurdish state, Kurdistan, would never happen as the strong nationalist sentiment had not emerged yet. Kurds would be part of Iraq and Turkey

*Italy and Greece sought to increase their influence in Turkey which only fueled the growing Turkish Nationalism

* the Turks were led by General Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

* Ataturk planned against the Greek invasion at Smyrna. There were Greeks that lived there but the connection to Greece was not that strong. Greece really wanted more territory in the Balkans and some of Asia Minor/Turkey. Greece was trying to expand.

* Ataturk was benefited by time
- armies were returning home
- the U.S. had begun to retreat into isolationism
- French and British forces could not be mobilized

* Ataturk worked to secularize and modernize Turkey. He rallied the Turks and defeated the Greeks

* Ataturk was able to force a separate peace called the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. Their territory was significantly increased from Sevres and they held onto Constantinople (Istanbul) which had religious significance to the Turks

* Ataturk was seen as a hero to the Turkish people for standing up to the west
Aftermath of Treaties of Paris
* the treaties of Paris were historically significant

* new nations were formed and dissatisfaction with their terms helped the fascists gain power in Italy and Germany

* for a while Germany would do its best to follow the terms of Versailles but ultimately Hitler and the Great Depression would see the end of that

* shortly after the United States would retreat into isolation and never even join the League of Nations. An organization it proposed. Without the U.S. and some other flaws the league of nations ultimately would fail. However it was still the first attempt at a global organization to promote peace

* While it is easy to blame the architects of these treaties for all the problems in the world that would come later, it is doubtful that anyone could have done much better. These were challenging times.
The Successor States
-these new nations faced difficulties as it was very hard to draw up borders

-out of Russia, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire new nations would form and national unrest would occur

-civil war and conflict would last for 4 more years after the war in central Europe’s as new nations fought for borders and survival (struggle for national self-determination)
-the borders drawn up by the treaties often didn’t make sense plus many of these nations had no structure in place to govern

-important issues that would later be significant include:
-3 million Germans left as part of Czechoslovakia in the Sudetenland
-German citizens left in what was known as the Polish Corridor
-Italian claims on the Adriatic coast of the new Yugoslavia
-Turkey not accepting the terms of the treaty of Sevres
What is fascism?
-what is Fascism- it is an ideology that would be considered to the extreme right
-ultra nationalistic
-extreme anti-communist
-law and order over individual rights
-strong central government control
-still have private ownership, in fact many of the wealthier classes supported the fascists in Germany and Italy
Fascism & Mussolini
-Mussolini was an opportunist who didn’t seem to have a strong belief in anything. Rather he took advantage of the situation.

-tools of propaganda and violence were used

-he was an extreme solution- important point to realize that democracies/people are more willing to accept extreme solutions during hard times

-after WWI, Italy was faced with social and economic unrest as strikes and lockouts occurred across the nation. Ex servicemen were disgruntled because they could not find jobs. There were many economic hardships and it was feared that Italy was on the verge of a potential communist revolution

-Italy was also displeased with what it received from the Paris peace treaties. They were promised more in the treaty of London when they joined on the side of the entente

-The poet D’Annuzio who seized the city of Fiume in 1919 inspired Mussolini

-Mussolini formed his own political force form mostly ex-servicemen. They were his “thugs” and were know as the blackshirts

-the blackshirts used violence to break up strikes and close down political meetings of left wing opponents. Mussolini justified this violence by saying Italy was on the verge of a communist revolution

-1922- the growing number of Fascists/blackshirts marched on Rome and demanded a share in the Government. King Emmanuel III gave in and Mussolini was named Prime Minister

-1922-25- Mussolini ruled in a semi democracy but his Fascists were eliminating opposition behind the scenes

-1925- Mussolini declares himself dictator. He uses propaganda to control the citizens
-called “Il Duce” and gave emotional speeches
-appealed to nationalist feelings and stressed Italy’s great past
-controlled the press
-had Fascists salutes and symbols ( the Fasces)
-outlawed opposition political parties
-controlled what kids learned in schools
-he divided Italy up in 22 corporate states and basically ended elections

-he was able to convince Italian citizens he was doing this for their own good

-he did have some successes
-wheat production increased
-transportation improved
-had some foreign policy successes

-Italy did become more aggressive in FP as he did seek to create an Italian “empire”

-a big PR win was the deal he signed with Pope called the Lateran Treaty in 1929. In exchange for recognition of the Fascist government from the Catholic Church, he gave the church Vatican City. Remember Italians were strongly Catholic. Mussolini had effectively bought off the Pope
The League of Nations
as covered in LG #1 this was the idea of US president Woodrow Wilson. It was the first attempt at a world organization

-its overall goal was to prevent conflicts and be a place for nations to deal with disputes. It was a global organization designed to deal with international problems

-all member nations would swear to stand by the leagues principles of international law and order. A General Assembly was formed which met once a year.

-the great powers formed a Council where, assisted by select smaller nations, would recommend sanctions to be used if a nation acted against the league’s goals

-these “sanctions” could be moral (world opinion), economic (cut-off trade to the country) and as a last resort military (use of force)

-the league also set up a Court of International Justice at the Hague to deal with disputes between nations

-the league also set up commissions to deal with various issues. One was to set-up Mandates or oversee areas that were not properly governed. Others commissions looked at the rights of racial minorities and looked at spreading trade unions and improving working conditions
Successes & Failures of League of Nations
-while the league had successes when disputes involved minor powers, it was unsuccessful policing major powers

-the league had several weaknesses, which would ultimately lead to its failure to keep the peace. These weaknesses included:
-the members would not use military action
-the US did not join
-Russia and Germany were not initially members
-the major powers often acted in their own self interest and ignored the league
-it was Eurocentric

-the league had two significant failures that demonstrated it was not prepared to stop a major power from acting aggressively (Hitler would take note of this)

-the first was the Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931)
-this was the beginning of the leagues decline
-Japan, an island nation lacking resources, started to aggressively acquire territory
-they invaded Manchuria, part of China, in 1931
-China appealed to the League who sent a commission led by Lord Lytton in 1932
-the Lytton Commission suggested the league govern this disputed area and branded Japan the aggressor
-Japan withdrew from the League in response
-Japan ignored the League and continued to occupy Manchuria
-the major powers did not want to send troops to Asia and ultimately did nothing
-Japan would later invade the rest of China in 1937

-the second major failure was the Italian invasion of Abyssinia/Ethiopia in 1935
-Mussolini was seeking ways to build an Italian empire and gain more territory
-Italy already had colonies in Africa; Abyssinia was a relatively easy target
-the league responded quickly and condemned the attack
-economic sanctions were imposed but they did not include oil, steel or coal
-wanting Mussolini’s help against an emerging Germany under Hitler (the Stressa Front) Britain and France would not extend the sanctions
-The Britain and French foreign ministers tried to work out a deal behind the scenes (Hoare-Laval)
-Nothing would be done, Germany would impose no sanctions (supporting Italy) on Italy which bring Mussolini and Hitler closer together

-as Hitler expanded the league was effectively useless and it would fade away
France's Security Between Wars
-France’s primary focus between the wars was to protect itself from Germany in the future

-France wanted an independent nation formed in the Rhineland to act as a buffer. This did not happen and instead the area was demilitarized

-it did regain Alsace Lorraine, which it lost in the Franco Prussian war in 1871

-France created the Maginot line to protect itself. It was a series of heavily fortified posts. Unfortunately it was static and based on assumptions from previous wars. It would be ineffective vs the moving “blitzkrieg” type war that Germany would develop

-it also participated in international agreements like the little entente with some of the successor states and the stressa front with Britain and Italy

-none of its attempts would be successful and France was vulnerable to Germany
Germany- Weimer Republic
-the period after WWI was very difficult in Germany
-there was an influenza epidemic
-jobs were scarce, unrest was common

-also the terms of the treaty of Versailles were very unpopular (lost land, war guilt, reparation payments, etc)

-the new democratic government called the Weimer republic (Berlin was the capital but when it was formed Berlin was faced with riots and violence) survived the initial period

-it was inflation that would be the greatest challenge

-Germany fell behind in its reparation payments (which should have been expected) leading France and Belgium to invade the industrial area of Germany known as the Ruhr

-workers refuse to work, goods became scarce, prices rose, demands for wages went up

-more money was printed and the German mark became increasingly worthless

-it was a true economic crisis and people were wiped out

-in the chaos Hitler led a revolt in Munich, was arrested and wrote Mein Kampf or my struggle. He was not a factor yet

-1924- aid came from the allies- the US invested and lends money as part of the Dawes Plan and a new German currency was created

-France and Belgium withdrew from the Ruhr. Reparation payments began again but were restructured under the Dawes plan of 1924. They would later be modified again under the Young Plan of 1929

-the popular Hindenburg became President, in 1926 Germany would join the League of Nations, and they renounced war in the Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928

-these were getting better both internally and externally for Germany. This was the “promise”. Then came the depression in 1929 which was the “collapse”
Germany- Hitler's Rise to Power
-remember that people are more likely to accept radical/ extreme solutions when times are tough

-1929 brought a world trade slump. Germany was tied to the US economy and hit very hard. Factories closed, unemployment was high

-one extreme party was the communist, the other was the Nazis. Many people joined these parties.

-the Nazis were fascist but they had the added feature of racial superiority attached to it. Hitler was strongly anti-Semitic and saw Jews and many other groups as inferior. Germans were part of what he saw as the master race

-Hitler formed his group of thugs called brown shirts. The brown shirts (or SA) intimated opposition and fought the communists in the streets

-in the 1932 elections the Nazis emerged as the largest party but not a majority

-they had to be taken seriously. Little could get done without them. In 1933 president Hindenburg agreed to let Hitler form a government and become Chancellor. They thought be could be controlled, they were wrong

-Hitler had appeal to some because people feared the communist and he was strongly anti Versailles. The Nazis also promised law and order. Many German businessmen supported Hitler. To them the alternative was worse
The Third Reich- Natzi Germany
* January of 1933- Hitler is appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg

* February of 1933- burning of the Reichstag (German parliament). This was blamed on the communists (likely a set-up)

* this event was used to break the communists in Germany and to create the Enabling Acts.

* the Enabling Acts
- gave Hitler the power to make laws without
parliament's approval
- parliament went along with it because of the
manufactured crisis and pressure from the Nazis
- Hitler used it to ban Socialists, trade unions and eventually all opposing points of view

* Hitler and the Nazis preceded to set-up a totalitarian state which included
-a dictator
-party apparatus
-nationalistic in sentiment

* Nazis extensively used propaganda. Goebbels was the minister in charge. Included films, radio and press. Also included censorship of opposing points of view

* Nazi party came to control the courts, public offices and the police

* a secret state police was set-up. The Gestapo, led by Heydrich, eliminated opponents

* the SS or Schutzstaffel, led by Himler, were elite Nazi troops. Also effective for many uses by the Nazis

* Luftwaffe- Airforce led by Goering

* Hess- deputy leader of the Nazi party. He would make a strange trip to Britain during the war

* Night of the Long Knives- June '34- Hitler uses to gain the support of the military and industrialists. Roehm and others are eliminated and Hitler gains control over the brown shirts or SA. This elimination of the Socialist element of the Nazi party leads to the allegiance of industrial leaders as well as the military.

* Youth in Germany- youth organizations "brain wash" and the Nazis control education and the schools. Teachers had to join the Nazi teacher’s league

* Churches- some resistance to the Nazis-religious leaders who resisted were sent to labour camps

* Jews- a campaign was started against them which would end with the "final solution" or what we call the Holocaust. It fed on the anti-Semitism already prevalent in Germany (and other European countries). The Jews were part of Hitler's undesirables and he used them as a scapegoat.

* the campaign against the Jews included:
-boycott of Jewish stores
-Nuremberg Laws- deprived the Jews of citizenship
-Crystal Night-'38- riots against the Jews, started over the killing of a German diplomat in France. Jewish businesses were attacked and destroyed. Synagogues were destroyed and stores looted.
-Jews were sent to labour camps- the mass killing of the final solution would come later during the war

* Many Jews tried to flee Germany but ended up being turned back or in countries conquered by Germany during the war

* 1936 Olympics- the Nazis painted a good face for the hosts including their treatment of the Jews. They fooled the world into thinking Hitler wasn't so bad

* Economy- the Nazis did bring some stability and prosperity which made them more popular. How:
- kept wages under control
- outlawed strikes and unions
- started rearmament
- introduced conscription
- Hitler made himself war minister
- Nazis controlled production
- goal was autarky or economic independence
- military build up and public works schemes (the Autobahn hwy.) ended unemployment
- workers were kept happy with controlled rents, jobs and paid holidays

* this economic path was not sustainable. Saw an increase in imports and deficit financing. But Hitler had a plan.
Hitler's Plan
B. Hitler's Plan

* Goal was to destroy the Treaty of Versailles, unite the German people and create Lebensraum or "living space" for the German people.

* Hitler believed in an Aryan master race. Other Nordic people would be tolerated. Some inferior races, such as Poles and Russians, would be used as slave labour and be controlled by a limited education. Others, such as Jews, Gypsies and Slavs would simply be eliminated.

* desired the Ukraine and Caucuses areas for living space and resources. Hitler knew his plan would mean war

* enacts his plan- starts with pulling out of the League of Nations in 1933

* Hitler's tendency was to appear aggressive than peaceful.

* he would do the unexpected- for example he dismantled France's Little Entente by signing a nonaggression back with Poland in 1934

* Hitler attempted Anschluss for the 1st time in 1934 with Dolfuss murder and a possible invasion but he was stopped by Mussolini who feared Hitler on his border. Italy was not an ally yet and Germany was still too weak

* Hitler ignored the Locarno Pacts and would not respect the Treaty of Versailles

* helped collapse the Stressa front (in 1935 an attempt by Britain, France and Italy to stand up to Hitler)
-signed a separate Anglo-German naval agreement where Germany pledged to only have 35% of the navy of Britain
-Hitler supported Mussolini over Abyssinia while Britain and France went against Italy. This was the beginning of the relationship between Hitler and Mussolini

* 1935 Saar plebiscite- 90% of the people agree to join Germany

* continually ignored Versailles and rearmed Germany

* remilitarized the Rhineland and sent troops in

* Hitler was convinced that Britain and France would do nothing

* why did these nations do little to stand against Hitler- they were democracies that wanted peace and were going through their own internal problems with the Depression. In addition the memory of the horror W.W.I was still powerful

* the Allies in their wishful thinking believed that Hitler was only trying to undo the treaty of Versailles

* Rome-Berlin Axis- Oct '36- Italy would not stand in the way of Anschluss anymore

* Germany supported Franco and the Nationalists in the Spanish civil war against the Republicans. They learned the value of the airforce and developed the Blitzkrieg technique

* signed the Anti-Comintern pact with Japan in 1936, thus allying with Japan

* Japanese aggression in fact took some of the attention off Germany. 1937 Japan invades China

* Britain and its PM Chamberlain adopt a policy of "appeasement" in regards to Hitler. Basically the idea was to give Hitler what he wanted and he will be reasonable

* Anschluss in 1938- Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg is forced to take a Nazi as minister of the interior

* Austrian Nazis, encouraged by Hitler, bullied and created conflict. Schuschnigg calls for a plebiscite on joining Germany.

* Hitler couldn't risk losing, the chancellor resigns to save himself, and a Nazi is made Chancellor (Seyss-Inquart) who calls Hitler for help to deal with the conflict. The German military comes in with no objection from Italy

* Hitler could have won a plebiscite but wouldn't risk it. He did have support in Austria

* Next was Czechoslovakia- started with saying the Germans in the Sudetenland should have the option of joining Germany. Chamberlain agrees then Hitler demands all the Sudetenland.

* This crisis almost led to war. This was the place to take a stand. Czechoslovakia had a strong military. Britain mobilized its navy.

* Mussolini calls for a meeting in Munich in Sept. of '38. It was agreed that the Sudetenland would go to Germany. The Czechoslovakian leader, Benes, was not even invited. He was undercut and now Czechoslovakia was weakened with the territorial loss.

* with the Munich agreement Chamberlain claims to have saved the day. However what they really did was just make Hitler think they would never do anything to stop him

* with the loss of citizens and industrial areas to Germany, a weakened Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in March of '39

* next on the list for Hitler was Poland but the problem was the Soviets who were on the other side of Poland.

* Stalin had lost faith in Britain and France and signed the Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression pact in Aug. of '39. The two leaders secretly agreed to carve up Poland.

* after Czechoslovakia, Britain and France determined that Hitler would not stop. They began an arms build ups and pledged to support Poland if Germany invaded. Hitler didn't believe them or didn't care.

* Hitler demanded Danzig, an important port which used to be part of Germany. Poland refuses. The Nazis stage a border incident and used this as an excuse to invade Poland.

* Invasion begins in Sept of '39. Later the Soviets would invade Poland from the East

* Britain and France were in no position to help Poland but they declared war on Germany. W.W.II had begun.
Russian Revolution - An Intro
-Russia was traditionally ruled by the Tsars and at the time of WW1 it was ruled by Tsar Nicholas. He was not a particularly bright or effective leader

-Russia experience with democracy was limited to a brief experiment with a parliament or “Duma” after an attempted revolution in 1905

-Russia was growing in industry at the start of WW1. It was rapidly expanding with a larger working class. However it was still a primarily agriculture/ peasant based country

-although it would take WW1 to finally bring revolution, there was lots of discontent prior to the war. Confrontation with the gov’t was common
The Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution

-overall the Russian army suffered terrible losses and numerous defeats

-this served to worsen conditions for both soldiers and citizens of Russia

-one reason they suffered so badly was that the Russia economy/society was not as advanced as the other European nations

-the Tsar made matters worse when he personally took control over the military, making himself responsible for the failures

-there were actually two revolutions. The first was in March of 1917 and the second was in November of 1917

-what began as a strike by textile workers grew into an unplanned revolution. When the military troops refused to put down the growing protest the Tsar was forced to abdicate or give up his throne

-the only two bodies left that resembled a government were the Duma and the Petrograd Soviet or council of workers. They would form the new government and it would be called the provisional government. The PG would be led by Prince Lvov and later Kerensky

-the provisional government made 2 decisions- one was to make Russia a democracy and the other was to continue the war. The second decision would come back to hurt them

-there were a number of political parties in Russia at this time. Two were the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks who were once together but had split. The Bolsheviks were strong communists.

-what is a communist- they followed the teaching of Karl Marx who called for a revolution of the “proletariat” or workers against the “bourgeoisie” or the upper classes that owned the factories. A communist would believe in:
-workers seizing power through revolution
-a society with no classes and with economic equality
-state ownership and no private property

-in practice communism would become totalitarian and have similarities to how fascist states functioned in terms of control of their society

-other political parties in Russia included the Socialist Revolutionaries (SR) and the Constitutional Democrats (Cadets)

-made up mostly of Mensheviks and SR, the provisional government formed. The Bolsheviks were not that popular at this point.

-Lenin himself was in exile and it was actually Germany that helped him get back to Russia in April (hoping he would help get Russia out of the war)

-Lenin wanted to overthrow the provisional government. He promised “peace, land and bread”

-Lenin and the Bolsheviks were the only party that would get Russia out of WW1 and give land to the peasants. This would increase their popularity

-Trotsky would heal a rift with Lenin and join the Bolsheviks in 1917. His capabilities were important during the revolution and later the civil war

-the provisional government would grow increasingly unpopular as they stalled on elections, failed to give land to the peasants and continued the war

-Russia was no more successful in WW1 after the first revolution than before

-Kerensky PG would actually arrest the leaders of the Bolsheviks but would be later forced to release them to avoid being overthrown in a military coup by General Kornilov

-Lenin waited for the right time, when the PG was most unpopular, and then called for a take-over of the government in November of 1917

-a weak provisional government crumbled away

-Lenin and the communists now controlled the interior of Russia

-Lenin quickly sued for peace with Germany and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that gave large territory to Germany

-fortunately for Russia, much of the land was returned when the treaty was cancelled after Germany’s defeat in WW1

-Lenin announced that Russia’s land now belonged to the peasants

-politically, at first he allowed some opposition parties but this would end. Other parties were outlawed and a secret police called the “Cheka” was set-up”

-eventually, even opposing points of view within the communist’s party would no longer be tolerated
Russian Civil War
The Civil War

-the anti-communists forces, backed by the western nations that won WW1, would now wage civil war against the communists. The whites controlled the outlying areas of Russia

-these forces were known as the Whites while the communist were known as the Reds

-Lenin would introduce terror as a tactic to eliminate opponents and control dissent

-from 1918-1920 the civil war continued

-with the help of foreign powers the whites were better armed. However the Reds, led effectively by Trotsky, controlled the interior which made it easier to transport and communicate

-the other advantage the reds had was that they were united. The whites were really just anyone against the communists. Not a united force

-during the civil war, Lenin brought in “war communism” which made urgent changes in the economy so Russia could fight the war

-these policies included forcing peasants to give up surplus crops to the government. It also include greater state control over industry and workers

-war communism was urgent and harsh

-during the civil was, Poland would take the opportunity to attack Russia and gain land. They underestimated the red army and were beaten back before repelling the reds back themselves. In the end Poland gained territory through the Treaty of Riga

-for the reasons above the Reds would win the civil war
The NEP & Death of Lenin
-Lenin realized that he needed to lighten up and created the New Economic Policy after the civil war

-the NEP allowed the peasants, after turning a certain amount over to the state, to keep crops and sell for profit

-some smaller businesses were returned to their owners and incentives were introduced

-these reforms were not “communist” like but Lenin had the ability to improvise to fit the situation

-in 1922 the USSR or Union of Soviet Socialist’s Republics was declared

-Lenin would become ill and became less able to be involved in communist affairs

-Stalin had positioned himself to become his successor when he became the General Secretary of the Party

-this position allowed him to control key appointments and place his supporters in positions to help him

-Lenin died in 1924 and the struggle for leadership began

-the chief figures were Stalin and Trotsky

-Trotsky was more intellectual and charismatic

-Stalin was more the schemer from a more humble background

-Stalin formed an alliance with Zinoviev and Kamanev against Trotsky. When he won that struggle he would turn on his allies and form new alliances

-Trotsky was resented by many communists for his rapid rise in the party. Also he continued to preach communist’s ideology of a “world revolution” where the USSR would support communist’s struggles in other nations

-by 1923 most of these communist movements in other nations were countered.

-Stain advocated a more appealing “socialism in one country” with the USSR working to be self-sufficient

-for a war weary country, this was more attractive and Stalin would win the struggle within the communists party. Trotsky would be exiled in 1927 and assassinated in 1940 in Mexico City by one of Stalin’s agents

-Stalin would continue to scheme to put himself in complete control of the USSR

-while Lenin had established communist party dictatorship, Stalin would exercise that power far more ruthlessly
Stalin's 5 Year Plans
-Stalin stated that the USSR was 50 years behind the western nations and vulnerable to those nations. He planned for a rapid catch up which became know as his 5 year plans

-the first 5 year plans (1928-32) focused on heavy industries. In particular coal, iron, steel and oil

-pressure was put on factory workers and managers. There were rewards for success but failure was met harshly

-new cities, factories, mines, dams, oil fields, etc were created

-increase in production was significant. A second 5 year plan began in 1933 and went to 1937. It also focused on heavy industries

-ambitious, even unrealistic, targets for these 5 year plans were established both over all and for individual factories, mines, etc and their workers

-incentives continued as did the heavy handed discipline

-by 1940, the USSR had overtaken Britain in steel production and had nearly caught up to Germany

-the third 5 year plan was designed to emphasize light industry or consumer goods. However the growth of Germany’s power by 1937 turned the emphasis to armaments as the USSR prepared for the possibility of war

-these successes in increasing production and modernizing Soviet industries positioned the USSR to be able to fight WW2. As well it set the USSR up to be one of only 2 superpowers after WW2

-while the 5 year plans were harsh, overall life for the average worker improved. In the countryside it was another story

-Stalin and the other communists believed that the NEP was no longer useful. Peasants owing land and being able to sell their surplus crops did not allow for larger, more modern farms. Also the NEP went against communist’s principles

-there would need to be a forced “collectivization” where land would be put together into larger state owned and operated farms. Peasants would work on these farms that would employ tractors and other modern farming equipment

-the problem was that a wealthy peasant class called Kulaks had emerged. They owned medium sized farms and did not want to give up what they had

-in 1929 forced collectivization began. The Kulaks resisted and were arrested. They were often forced off on marches and left to die. In the end 5 million Kulaks were killed

-the Kulaks would resist by killing their own livestock and destroying crops

-the majority of peasants were landless and had no problem working on the state owned farms

-collectivization caused turmoil in agriculture which resulted in famine killing millions more

-6 million Ukrainians were killed when their grain was forcibly seized by the Soviet government from 1932-33

-opposition to this forced effort was simply not tolerated.

-the workers on the farms were given small plots of land to grow their own crops

-in the end the results of collectivization were mixed. Farms were modernized and production eventually improved but it was at a terrible cost
Stalin's Purges
-while dissent still was not tolerated, Stalin took his grip of power to a new level

-Stalin was a paranoid man who tolerated no rivals.

-Stalin perceived two potential threats. One was from the old Bolsheviks leaders who had been part of the revolution from the beginning. The second threat was from the military leadership

-he purged these groups which means to get rid of

-he looked to eliminate any possible threat or person of dissent. No opposition would be tolerated

-the major communist party leaders (old Bolshevik leaders) were arrested and put on trial. These trials were called “show trials”

-people like Kamenov and Zinoviev, both executed, confessed to crimes against the state while on trial. They were tortured and feared for the lives of their families.

-In 1937 he purged the military effectively eliminating 1/3 of their officers and most of the higher officers. With the most capable military leaders gone, this made the struggle against Germany in WW2 more difficult

-Stalin’s regime functioned where no when ever felt too comfortable
Soviet Foreign Policy
-From 1917 to 1941 the USSR faced many difficulties in foreign policy

-the first challenge was getting out of WW1 but we have already discussed Brest-Litovsk so we’ll go on

-communists believed that revolution would spread and be global. It was clear after WW1 this was not going to happen

-the communists also believed that the non communist western nation would try to crush the new communist government of Russia/USSR

-the western assistance to the whites during the civil war reinforced this believe

-in order to try to protect Russia/USSR and to promote communism abroad, Lenin created the Communist International or Comintern

-this organization would put the USSR as the leader of global communism and have it aid and direct communist parties in other nations

-recognition of the USSR was slow to come from other nations

-the first to recognize the USSR was Germany. The two nations signed the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922. Parts of this treaty gave the USSR economic assistance and allowed Germany to use Soviet territory for Germany military training, which went against Versailles

-this relationship with Germany would continue until Hitler ended it in 1941

-the threat of Japan in the east after 1931 brought improved relations between China and the USSR

-the USSR tried to direct Japanese expansion to the south and away from the USSR. The USSR and Japan signed a neutrality Pact in 1941

-in Europe, as Hitler and the Fascists became a greater concern to Stalin, the USSR tried to engage the West

-the USSR signed assistance treaties with France and Czechoslovakia in 1935

-the USSR joined the League of Nations in 1934

-However, the western nations continued to be suspicious of Stalin’s motives

-the mutual distrust led Stalin to attempt to secure the USSR’s safety on his own

-the USSR signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in 1939

-this meant the two nations were supposed to remain neutral if war broke out

-it also allowed Stalin to take back Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania as well as parts of Poland

-it would take the invasion of the USSR in 1941 for the “grand alliance” between the US, Britain and the USSR to be forged and win WW2
Conclusion of Russian Revoltion - > Stalin's Purges Lecture
-while Lenin was nowhere near as ruthless as Stalin he did create a one party system where dissent was not allowed. He also introduced a secret police force and the use of terror

-Stalin would ultimately create a brutal totalitarian government where the communist’s party and one man (himself) had complete control. But the roots were there prior to his rise to power

-it should also be noted that although the USSR was modernized during this time and that this did help defeat Germany in WW2….but at what cost

-Stalin is responsible for more deaths than any figure in history
Roosevelt & New Deal
* Roosevelt, a democrat, was elected in 1932 and became president in 1933. He promised vast amounts of government expenditures to stimulate the economy. He promised a “New Deal”

* he immediately tried to restore confidence in the banking system through the Emergency Banking Act. He shut down the banks and only allowed the strong ones to reopen

* he spoke to the American people in his fireside chats trying to restore their confidence and put them at ease

* prohibition was repealed

* the 1st New Deal was designed to create jobs. This was largely done through public works organizations such as the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) which provided work for young people in the countryside and the TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) which built dams along the Tennessee river. These alphabet agencies provided opportunities for American citizens

* the 2nd New Deal, started in 1935, was designed to help the poor and unemployed. It included new social programs such as the Social Security Act which provided pensions for the old, widowed or maimed.

* the New Deal dramatically increased the American government's role in the economy and in society

* however this did not end the depression. It improved matters but it wasn't until W.W.II that the U.S. fully recovered
Foreign Policy between wars
* the US emerged from W.W.I an even greater economic power

* despite this they quickly retreated into isolation after W.W.I. In 1920 the US congress rejected the treaty of Versailles and the US did not join the League of Nations (which was Wilson's idea). However they were a huge power and they did involve themselves in some world affairs

* they did involve themselves in German affairs as the crisis in Germany in 1923 (massive inflation and occupation of the Ruhr by France) led to the Dawes Plan of 1924. The Dawes plan established loans to Germany, helped stabilize its currency and scaled down reparation payments

* the US would continue its involvement in assisting Germany in the Young Plan of 1929 which rescheduled reparation payments and at Lausanne in 1932 where they tried to reduce reparation payments.

* the US became involved in disarmament talks and other agreements in the 1920s in an effort to deal with Japan's expansion. These included:
- the Washington Naval Treaty (1921) where the Japanese were restricted to a ratio of 3 to 5 ships with the US and Britain for 10 years
- the 4 Power Treaty- where Britain, France, Japan and the US agreed to consult each other over any future territorial disputes
-the 9 Power Treaty- which called for the respect of China's borders and an Open Door policy on trade
-the London Naval Conference (1930) which altered the ratios for Japan on auxiliary ships but not capital ships

* the US had economic interests in China and they recognized the government of Chiang Kai-shek in 1928. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and the rest of China 1937 put the US further at odds with Japan

* the US also sought to protect its interests in the Philippines

* the US banned exports of iron, steel and oil to Japan in 1940. In 1941 they froze all Japanese assets in the US. The US was the only force preventing Japanese expansion in the Pacific so in Dec. of 1941 Japan struck first and bombed Pearl Harbor

* US foreign policy moves were not restricted to Japan. As Hitler intentions became clear, Roosevelt led the US to policies that increasing supported Britain

* Initially the Neutrality Act of 1935 imposed an impartial arms embargo in the event of any conflicts. This was first put to the test in Ethiopia after Mussolini attacked in 1935. The isolationists were still controlling FP

* Roosevelt moved to remove arms embargoes and help Britain but the US was not prepared to take an active role yet

* in 1939 after war broke out, congress repealed its arms embargo and Britain could get war materials from the US provided it used its own ships to pick these materials up. This was called "cash and carry"

* in 1940 the US provided 50 destroyers to Britain in exchange for a 99 year lease on bases in the Caribbean

* also in 1940 the US had its first ever peace time draft through the Selective Training and Service Act

* in 1941 the US created the Lend-Lease Act which provided Britain and other nations with whatever war materials the president deemed needed so as to protect the interests of the US

* also in 1941 American ships began to patrol the Atlantic and engaged German submarines

* although already firmly in the camp of Britain, it would take Pearl Harbor to fully commit the resources of the US to W.W.II
Foreign Influence in China & Japan
-there was a long history of foreign influence in China

-the more advanced militaries of European powers forced China to allow economic privileges and foreign influence. These were called treaty ports

-resentment of this led to the Boxer rebellion in 1900

-the US, wanting to increase trade with China, advocated an “open door” policy. They were able to get the nine power treaty which gave a modified open door policy and ended the treaty ports. Manchuria’s fate was not decided. Was is to be part of China?

-Japan was more isolated, until in 1853 American commodore Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay

-this ended her “isolation” and she began a movement towards modernization
Japanese Imperialism after WW1
-geographically Japan is a small nation with a good size population

-being an island, industrial growth would require the acquisition of resources that Japan just did not have

-Japan’s focus moved to the Asian mainland. This would lead Japan to first come in conflict with Russia. From 1904-05 they fought in what was called the Russo-Japanese War. When it was ended Japan acquired territory (Lushen and Sakhalin Island) and economic interests (railway) from Russia in Manchuria. More importantly this broke the aura of “invincibility” that surrounded the Western powers. Japan believed they could defeat them

-during WWI, Japan fought as an ally of Britain. It mainly occupied German colonies in the Pacific. The Treaty of Versailles would give Japan those islands as mandates

-as Japan sought to grow in power, the European powers and the US became concerned and sought to stabilize the area

- the Washington Naval Conference in 1921 was designed to stop the escalating naval race. It gave Japan only 3 ships to 5 ships compared to the US and UK (Britain). While it seemed unfair (especially to the Japanese), remember the US and UK had to spread their ships over 2 oceans. Japan still had the strongest fleet in the Pacific but they hated the limitations it was given

-The Washington Treaties were renewed in 1930 but in 1934 the Japanese walked out from the next round of naval talks

-tensions between the west and Japan grew. Some of it was based on race as Canada and the US sought to limit Asian immigration during this period

-Japan felt that she was not being given equal status with the Western nation. Its Foreign Policy moved away from the Europeans and US and more to entrenching its power in Asia. This would mean forcing the westerners out
Nationalists & Communists in China
-the Manchu dynasty that ruled China collapsed in 1911

-the Guomindang or nationalists founded in 1912 worked to unite China and in 1927 had enough territory and power to announce the Republic of China

-the Guomindang combined the principles of nationalism, democracy and socialism

-in 1925 Chiang Kai-shek becomes the Nationalist’s leader and moved the party away form democracy and socialism

-under Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi), the Nationalists expanded control to the northern parts of China. The Nationalists/Kuomintang became a party of generals and wealthy landowners

-Chiang purged his party of communists in 1927. The communist party would be reformed under Mao Tse-tung. The communists hid in the country side and would become increasingly popular with China’s landless peasants

-in 1934, the communists were on the brink of exterminations but broke out and marched to safety in the North. This long journey and struggle saw only 30,000 out of 90,000 communists survive. This was known as the Long March. The key points to the Long March are that the communists or People’s Liberation Army (Red Army):
-got away, regrouped and rebuilt
-treated the peasants well when they traveled through their land (paid for what they needed, etc)

-Mao’s appeal to the peasantry was dangerous to Chiang and the nationalists and he would continue to try to destroy the communists

-another point-Chinese communism differed from Marxist’s ideas in that Mao believed that his revolution would be peasant based

-Chiang’s attempts to eliminate the communists would take priority over fighting the Japanese

-he believed that Japan would eventually be defeated by Britain and the US, so his focus was on the greater long term threat to the nationalist’s control over China. This was the communists

-the communists and Mao on the other hand urged that both sides should fight the Japanese (first) then settle the dispute between the two

-the communists were seen as more strongly trying to get the Japanese out of China than the nationalists. This was another factor giving the communists greater popular support

-the Japanese invasion of the rest of China in 1937 would force Chiang to deal more with the Japanese threat and work reluctantly with the communists

-the struggle between the nationalists and communists would be put on hold until after WW2. After the war it would continue

-Mitchner has a nice bio on Mao you should read (we will discuss him more later in the course)
Japanese invasion of Manchuria
-growing Chinese nationalism (and the nationalists) was a threat to Japan’s interests in Manchuria

-Japanese business people had come to regard Manchuria as their own

-the Kuomintang /nationlists wanted a united China including Manchuria which meant getting Japan off the mainland

-in 1931, Manchuria’s political leader (Chang Hsueh-Liang) was a nationalist and declared Manchuria as part of China

-with the shrinking import/export market caused by the depression, this was not acceptable to Japan. Tariffs created as a result of the depression had particularly hurt Japanese trade

-they felt they needed Manchuria and could not let it go. Japan invades Manchuria in 1931

-the invasion went smoothly which bolstered the Japanese military’s belief that Japan’s survival depended on expansion

-Chiang Kai-Shek, still battling the communists, did not send troops and instead appealed to the League of Nations

-as we know the league sent the Lytton Commission which was sympathetic to Japan but still labeled her as the aggressor

-insulted, Japan withdrew from the League

-not wanting to commit troops to Asia, the League left the matter

-the US was growing concerned about Japanese aggression but could do little about it at this time

-they did enact the Stimson Doctrine which was the principle of not recognizing territory acquired through aggression

-the US and Japan were becoming enemies
Further War in China
-Chiang could no longer avoid the Japanese when Japan invaded Northern/Eastern China in 1937. Japan’s goal continued to be to force recognition of their occupation of Manchuria

-Mao had called all along for a united effort vs Japan (and all foreigners)

-the Japanese army started this campaign in China which began with great success

-Chiang Kai-shek resisted but was forced out of his capital and further inland. The capital, Nainjing, was captured and pillaged

-the Japanese hoped to force Chiang to negotiate and recognize their occupation of Manchuria. But the savagery (250,000 lost lives) in Nainjing backfired and hardened Chinese resolve

-the Japanese advanced inward and were halted at the Yangzi Gorges

-an undeclared 6 year truce would occur and serious fighting between the Chinese and Japanese would not happen again until 1944

-Chiang retreated to the mountains where he received supplies form the Allies (UK,US and USSR).

-Believing the Japanese would be defeated eventually by the Allies, Chiang decided to save the Nationalist’s strength for the war with the communists.
The Greater East Co=Prosperity Sphere and the Road to War
-in 1939 Japan controlled most of eastern China but had still not defeated the Nationalists

-others attempts that tried to expand into the USSR had failed. Her expansion turned to the islands of Southeast Asia

-this would mean dealing with the western nations

-using a pro-Asian, pro nationalism, anti-imperialism stance, the Japanese created the concept of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

-the slogan was “Asia for the Asians”. This wouldn’t exactly happen but we will discuss this in a LG#8

-although allied with Germany through the anti-comintern pact, Japan signed a treaty of nonaggression with the USSR. Their focus was on Southeast Asia

-Britain and the US could do little as Japan grew increasingly aggressive. They changed their focus to economic sanctions against Japan in 1940

-a ban on fuel was particularly damaging to Japan. To get the fuel they needed Japan planned to seize the oil reserves in Southeast Asia

-1940- Japan takes over for a defeated France in Indochina (the area that today Viet Nam is part of)

-Tojo comes to power in Japan in 1940. He is not/less willing to negotiate with the west

-the US dragged out negotiations and would not recognize Japan’s right to parts of China. The US wanted them out and continued the economic sanctions

-Nov.25th, 1941- Roosevelt sends a final ultimatum to Japan and he realized that US opposition to Japanese expansion would mean war

-it was expected that Japan would attack Singapore or Manila (not Pearl Harbour)
Pearl Harbour
-the attack on Pearl Harbour occurred on Dec.7, 1941
-Japan attacks the US naval base in Hawaii
-this attack brought the US into WW2

-Japan’s plans for China and Southeast Asia could only be stopped by the US

-but it was not US and British military, but their economic sanctions
led to the attack on Pearl Harbor

-the US believed an attack was coming but did not foresee the attack at PH

-taken by surprise, US battleships were damaged or destroyed and the US air force in the pacific was severely damaged

-there were 2403 deaths, 3 battleships sunk, numerous more badly damaged, and 2/3 of the US air force destroyed

-at the same time there were very few casualties for Japan

-after crippling the US military in the Pacific, Japan moved to attack the Philippines, Hong Kong. Malaya, Thailand and Singapore. Their planned expansion into SE Asia had begun

-Japan hoped that the US, badly damaged from the attack on Pearl Harbor would negotiate a peace that would be favorable to Japan

-Japan also worked to set-up an arc of island bases that would make retaliating against Japan very difficult

-weakened and seeing the difficulties of war with Japan, the Japanese believed the US would be forced to recognize their right to Manchuria and their dominance of Southeast Asia

-in the end, all it did motivated the industrial giant of the US to go to war

-Hitler as a result of the attack declares war on the US which may have been a costly error. The US public may have demanded the US deal only with Japan

-the attack itself may have been unnecessary because prior to it the US really was in no position to halt Japanese expansion into SE Asia

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