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Unit 9

Terms

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cells of immune system
macrophages, dendritic, NK cells (natural killer cells), B Cells, granulocytes, polymorphonuclear (PMN), leukocytes.
urine antibody test
approved aug 1996 - NOT used in FLorida, not as accurate as standard blood test.
HEP C treatment
interfurone- many side effects.
Saliva
the watery fluid produced by glands that open into the mouth
Postive test results
IS infected with HIV ; capable of infecting others, tests repeated and confirmed with western blot.
contagious
capable of being transmitted from person to person.
confidential
keeping information private or secret.
Hep B spreads via
infected blood, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva, open sores and breast milk
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
a type of pneumonia caused by parasitic infection in the lungs, that some people with HIV disease are especially susceptible to an often die from. PCP rarely occurs in people with healthy immune systems. The symptoms of OCO are similar to other severe forms of pneumonia: difficulty breathing, fever and cough
Contra for Hep B vaccine
if allergic to bakers yeast..cannot have shot.
CNS
the brain and the spinal cord
contaminated blood products
blood or blood products infected with HIV or any other germ. MARCH 1985 all blood used for transfusion in US have to screened and found negative for HIV before USE.
primary lymphoma of the brain
Cancer of CNS - recovery prognosis poor
If Hep B becomes chronic medication required
interfeurone- side effects are HORRIBLE
immune system
the human body;s network of cells and organs that produce disease fighting antibodies.
STDs make HIV transmission
2-5 times more likely during unprotected sex.
Vaccine
preparation usually composed of dead or weakened viruses that help the body to develop active immunity against a disease
Person (people) with AIDS (PWA)
this refers to persons who have developed AIDS
One of the most widely reported diseases that is preventable by vaccine
Hepatitis- a liver disease casued by various strains of HEP virus.
macrophage cells
WBC that act as "scavenger cells" in the immune system to help th body fight infection. 1st Cell invaded by HIV. HIV burrows into macrophage cells and grows there in early stages of infection. HIV can hide in these cells without triggering ANTIBODIES making it hard to detect in the early stages.
cardiovascular
pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
Protease inhibitors
6- curently available- last stage of virus replication cycle - prevents HIV from being successfullyassembled and releases from the infected CD4+ cell , used in COMBO, appear effective for LIMITED time. immunity to one drug-may cause other drugs to be ineffective.
Self-esteem
what people think and feel about themselves, not what others think or feel about them
HIV-
is a retrovirus- targets and infects T cells. Helpers cells invaded by virus.
IMMUNE SYSTEM
composed of interdependent cell types, collectively protects the body, can engulf bacteria, kill parasites of tumor cells, or kill viral infections. DEPENDS on T cells alot
diseases caused by viruses
AIDS, measles, polio, infectious Hepatitis, yellow fever.
antigen tests
viral culture, PCR
Vaginal fluids
the fluids that are discharged from the wall of the woman's vagina
Thrush
a fungal infection characterized by white spots in the mouth and throat, often found in patients with depressed immune systems, caused by Candida albicans
B-cells
cells that cause the body's immune system to react immedicately if an invading germ of an earlier infection enters the body again. (produces antibodies)
HEP A
caused by Hep A virus - preparing foods, not washing hands properly. Symptoms include: fatigue, fever, sore muscles, headache, pain on right side of abd, nausea, loss of app, loss of weight, jaundice, dark urine, clay stools. CAN LAST 2 weeks. can spread for 2 weeks before you get symptoms.
viral hepatits
can be transmitted from one person to another but the other types cannot.
false positive
refers to a response in HIV antibody blood testing indicating a person has been infected with HIV when in fact he or she has NOT.
Neonatal
pertaining to the first four weeks of life
Wet dream (nocturnal emission)
the spontaneous release of semen can happen at night or during the day when a male is asleep
circumcision
the name of the procedure that removes foreskin from the head of the penis
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by virus, such as HEP A B C
once exposed to HIV virus
takes 2 weeks to 6 months before immune system will respond by producuing antibodies.
When T cell count falls below 200 microlitier
opportunistic infections are more likely to occur. These infections in HIV patients usually cause damage and death. Usually does NOt die from HIV itself. there are over 25 opportunistic diseases assoc. with AIDS.
anus
the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.
IF seen by Dr. within 2 weeks of exposure to HEP B
can get vaccine IMMUNE GLOBULUM to prevent disease progression.
condoms
a rubber or latex sheath that covers the penis during sexual intercourse. protects from pregnancy, certain STD's and HIV. Sheepskin condoms NOT safe for protection from HIV
western blot
more specific than Elisa, More difficult to perform, Used to confirm positive Elisa results. Identifies presence of Viral proteins.
C -section births
may reduce HIV transmission
false negative
refers to a response in HIV antibody blood testing, indicating a person has not been infected by HIV when in fact the person has been exposed. Usually occurs when the body has not yet created antibodies that can be accurately measured.
Hep B preventions
universal precautions, get vaccine, condoms, gloves, cover open wounds, dont share razors, toothbrushes, tattoo, manicure.
HEP B
Caused by Hep B Virus- causes scarring of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer and death.
infectious disease
diseases caused by microorganisms living in or on the body.
DGI
disseminated gonoccol infection; the systemic spread of gonorrhea through the circulatory system throughout the body.
Tuberculosis
an infectious disease which usually infects the lungs
serological tests ***
ONLY reliable method to detect HIV infection. Only available since 1984. 2 tests: Elisa and Western Blot
Pathogen
foreign invaders (microorganisms) capable of producing a disease
CDC
centers for disease control.
vaccinations are and effective defense if
protein coats on the viruses are constsant. (ex. measles, polio, smallpox)
lubricant
a substance applied to condoms or sexual organs to reduce friction
diagnosis
the process of identifying a disease through examination
abstinence
the practice of refraining from sexual activity.
preventions for HEP A
universal precautions, caution raw shell fish, uncooked foods, illegal drugs.
dementia
a brain disorder causing deteriorationof the mind. increasing numbers being found in AIDS patients
communicable
capable of spreading fromone diseases person or animal to anothe person or animal, either directly or indirectly.
Myth
an idea not based on fact
Organs of IMMUNE System
Spleen, Lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus.
Seroconversion
the time at which antibodies for a specific antigen can be detected using a diagnostic test
B Cells and T-cells
are neede to help th body fight HIV
discrimination
prejudice, being unfair.
3 cell types that engulf bacteria and parasites
granulocytes, (PMN) polymorohonuclear, Leukocytes
HIV-2
second type of AIDS virus discovered in the late 1980's in west Africa. HIV 2 has also been found in people in other parts of the world. Scientists believe second part of virus may provide further info on HIV 1
HIV status within one month of birth
PCR or western blot
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
a complex but sophisticated new genetic test which has made detection of HIV easier and more precise than earlier testing procedures. PCR has been used successfully to distinguish babies born infected with HIV from those who appear to be infected because they are still carrying their mother's antibodies
Yeast
a kind of fungal infection
hospice care
a system that provides health care for terminally ill patients in a home like setting.
antibody
a substance produced in and by the body that protects against specific disease infections
the immune response
response to a foreign atigen requires the presence of a macrophage or a dendritic cell (APC) in combination with a B-cell or T-cell.
HTLV-III
an early name given to HIV by researchers in the US
***HIV virus
damages your immune system by invading, then killing the CD-4 + (T-helper) cells. These are the cells that fight off infection in your body.
HEP C
caused by Hep C Virus- most COMMON blood BORN infection in US . affects 4 million people. chronic infection- will last rest of life.
NK cells
natural killer cells- directly kill certain tumors such as melanomas, lymphomas, and viral infected cells.
Opportunistic Infections
serious infections that take the "opportunity" to invade the body with a weakened or unhealthy immune system; examples include: Kaposi's Sarcoma and peumocystis carinii pneumonia
ELISA blood test
ENZYME linked immunosorbent assay blood test- the name of the blood test initially done to detect the presence of antibodies in HIV in the body. This test detects olny the presence of anitbodies to HIV, but does not diagnose AIDS. A positive response to ELISA test indicates infection by HIV.
As CD4 cell count decreases
begin to show signs of HIV disease.
Home access
errors possible, phone for results, sold in drug stores.
Nonoxynol-9
a chemical included in spermicides that kill sperm, and that also has been shown to kill HIV in a test tube. Although the use of spermicides along with condoms is thought to be more effective in preventing HIV, recent studies have linked the use of nonoxynol-9 to bladder and yeast infections. Consulting a physician before deciding to use spermicides is encouraged
Monogamous
remaining sexually faithful (committed) to one partner in an intimate relationship
Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)
a type of cancer that causes purple blotches to appear on the skin. can also affect mouth and other organs. Once rare cancer found in elderly men of Mediterranean descent. KS is now bieng found in increasing numbers of people with HIV disease.
chancre
the first open sign of syphilis; a small painless sore and ulcer that appears on the site where the spirochete of the syphilis entered the body.
Negative test results
No infection OR recently infected , so sufficient antibodies have not yet been produced. takes 2-12 weeks, occasionally 6 months.
ALL infants born to mothers with HIV
test positive for antibodies. 70% are actually not infected AND will lose those antibodies within 18 months
Breast milk contains
High number of T cells. could increase transmission risk.
immunity
the human bodys ability to resist infection
germ
a virus, bacterium, yeast or fungus that can cause disease.
direct transmission
a manner of transmitting disease organisms in which the agent moves immediately from teh infected person to the suseptible person, as in person to person contact. No intermediate host was involved.
chronic herpes simplex
viral infecgtion characterized by mucocutaneous sores.
lymphatic system
the channels and small vessels that collect tissue fluid (lymph) and transport it back to the veins so that it re-enters the circulating blood stream.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
infectious diseases spread by sexual contact with an infected person. AIDS and HIV disease, syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Chlamydia are examples of STDs
anal intercourse
insertion of the penis into a partners rectum.
DNA
strands of molecules in a cell that contain the bodys genetic code.
latin for poison
virus
pneumocystis carinii
most common opportunistic infection-
cytomegalovirus
viral infection ranges from benign to sever. can cause brain damage, colitis, pneumonia and blindness.
Prenatal
during pregnancy
AZT- zidovudine
(formally known as azidothymidine) an antiviral drug that is used to treat, but not cure, HIV disease and AIDS. Drug Supresses HIV activity in the body, but does not eliminate the virus. AZT sold under brand name Retrovir
Antiviral medications
3 classes- each interferes with HIV ability to replicate in a different way. Several drugs are used in COMBO( cocktail), Suppresses HIV replication and raises T cell count.
Spermicide
a chemical compound that kills sperm
asymptomatic
refers to a person infected with HIV showing NO symptoms of illness. Infectious and capable of spreading.
Retrovirus
a type of virus that causes AIDS; has a different chemical makeup than other viruses
Safer sex
sometimes called "less risky sex" refers to a concept that encourages certain behaviors that can help prevent HIV transmission as well as the spread of other STDs. Safer sex most often refers to the use of condom or condoms and spermicides, and limiting one's sexual experiences to a mutually monogamous relationship with a person not infected with HIV
Transmission of HIV
the spread of HIV through sexual exchange of body fluid, sharing contaminated IV needles, transfusion of contaminated blood products and passing from an infected mother to fetus or infant
incubation period
the time elapsed from the point of infection to the onset of symptoms
passive dispersal of viruses
random movement via, wind, food, insects, water, body secretions, blood. , Can only hurt when they get into hosts cell, can only infect when encounter suitable cell surface.
ELISA
enzyme linked immumnosorbent assay antibody test- easy to perform, inexpensive, short turn around, end point can be measured, INITIAL test used to determine HIV exposure. Many false positives.
AIDS
HIV + and AIDS + 1-2 years ( longer with effective drug cycle)
congenital immunodeficiency
a condition present at birth that leaves an infant with an inadequate immune system.
Pandemic
the spread of disease over a wide geographic area, affecting vast number of people
HIV infected
a person who carries the HIV virus
most common infection route of HIV
unprotected sex.
T - cells
T helper subset called CD4 + T -cell, T killer/ supressor subset also called CD8 + T cells
FDA approved drugs
7 - AZT, ddl, ddC, d4T 3TC, combivir(AZT&3TC) and ambacavir
characteristics of viruses
1. difficult to classify, NO cellular structure, can infect suseptible cells, do not carry cellular respiration, composed of organic compounds.
infection
invasion of the body by organisms
IFA ****
immunoflourescent assay- test uses a known preparation of antibodies, with flourescent dye. direct- cultures and smears: indirect- antibodies from serum bound to antigen. Similar to western blot. ONE of the QUICKEST available. can be done in dr. office.
gay
refers to people who prefer intimate relationships with people of the same sex. refers to homosexual men.
antigen
any substance capable of causing an immune (antibody) response.
hep b vaccines
engerixb or recombibax HBN given in series of 3 injections.
viral loads
tells Quantity of HIV-RNA in blood. PCR, bDNA, NASBA most commonly used. also needed to monitor CD4+ levels (status of immune system)
HIV symptomatic
HIV + but AIDS - (neg) can last 1-3 years, longer with effective drug cycle.
wasting syndrom
significant weight loss 10% of baseline body weight, occuring in absence of intestinal disease. Directly assoc.with HIV infect. DIET therapy initiated upon diagnosis of HIV
macrophages
scavengers
risk from injecting drugs and sharing needles
1 / 2 chances of contracting the virus
AZT
zidovudine or ZDV- approved in 1987 - used in combo with others, reduces transmission of HIV during pregnanacy. Does not cure, prolongs life.
Blood donations centers use
Elisa test to test blood donated.
antibody tests
Elisa, western blot, IFA, synpep
NIAID
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
in utero transmission
passing of an infectious agent/disease from a prenant woman to her fetus.
lymph nodes
gland like structures that serve as filters to screen minute particles, especially bacteria.
Hep C transmission
blood, sharing needles, healthcare workers are at risk. sexual contact low but still risk.
LAV
an early name given HIV by french scientists
homosexual
a person who prefers intimate relationships with a person of the same sex.
risk of contracting HIV from blood transfusion
1/30,000 - 1/500,000
AIDS
aquired immune deficiency syndrome- an incurable deadly disease where the body's immune system cannot fight off germs. the immune system stops functioning and the infected person becomes sick and dies.
intravenous drugs
drugs injected by needle directly into a vein
HIV/AIDS disease progression
1. initial infection 2. HIV asymptomatic ( HIV + but AIDS -) 3. HIV symptomatic (HIV+ but AIDS-) , AIDS (HIV+ and AIDS+)
ddC/ddI
drugs used int he treatment of paitents with AIDS; they do not cure but may reduce th severity of symptoms and may prolong the life of the person with AIDS>
helper T-cell ( T-4cell)
in the immune system that normally act to help create antibodies that work int eh bodys defense against infection. These helper T-cells are the "managers" of the immune system. WHEN HIV enters the body it selectively attacks these T-cells, thus leaving the immune system impaired in fighting infections and disease.
Syndrome
a group of diseases, indicating a specific infection or condition
Antibiotics
inhibit cell wall production in bacteria. Viruses do NOT have cell walls making antibiotics ineffective.
HIV asymptomatic
HIV + but AIDS - (neg) can last 5-10 years
ethical
based on moral judgements or standards
White blood cells
part of the immune system
Prostate Gland
gland that produces most of the seminal fluid and is also a site for cancer
AIDS hotline
`a local, state, or national phone number that provides informatin and referrals on disease infections.
Mutate
to change in genetic form, either all by itself or as a reaction to an outside agent
Orasure
uses cheek, and gum cells, not for saliva, accurate only if sufficient time has passed after infection (months)
TB (tuberculosis)
bacterial infection spread by coughing sneezing. usually infects lungs but can spread systemically. treatment resistant.
All types of Hepatitis
can cause liver inflammation
endemic disease
present continually in a community or a group of people. Common to specific population or region.
dendritic
cells more efficient than macrophages
cyrptosporidiosis
protozoa infection of inner lining of intestines. Causes sever diarrhea. Can be life threatening due to dehydration. no treatment except hydration therapy.
Prevent
to keep something from happening
protease inhibitor side effects
ranges from uncomfortable- to tolerable- to life threatening. Buffalo hump, protease paunch, raises cholesterol and triglycerides,
Most effiecient route of transmission of HIV
is blood to blood contact- needles. any type of needle sharing.
Once a person seroconverts
they become HIV pos, upon conversion they experience flu like symptoms that last 7-10 days. goes away , then may not get aids for 5-10 years
Toxoplasmosis
a brain disorder afflicting many AIDS patients. It is caused by a parasite called toxoplasma gondii
host
a person or organism in whom an infectious pathogen can live and multiply.
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)
a virus that causes fatal AIDS-like illnesses in monkeys
heterosexual
a person who prefers intimate relationships with a person of the opposite sex.
woman carrying twins
more likely to infect first born baby.
HIV virus spread through
sexual contact, sharing IV needles, mothers to newborns, rarely through blood transfusions.
EIA
rapid results - blood taken by finer, if positive, must be confirmed by other tests.
Candidiasis
fungal infection- appears as white , sometimes painful patches on tongue and oral mucus membranes- goes to espohagus and lungs.
WHY be tested for HIV?
recieve medical treatment before symptoms appear, Take precautions to prevent spreading to others.
Semen
a male sexual fluid, a mixture containing sperm and other reproductive substances produced in the reproductive system of the male
consideratons for initiating antiretroviral therapy
recommended for all patients with HIV levels above 5000-10000ml of plasma.
lymphocyte
type of white blood cell that s manufactured in bone marrow and transported through the lymph system; helps to produce immunity.
homophobia
fears, myths, and prejudices people have about homosexuals or attraction to people of the same sex.
congenital
aquired by the newborn before birth
indirect transmission
a manner of transmitting disease organisms in which th agents do not pass directly from an infected person to a susceptible person, but by means of an intermediate host, such as water, mosquitos, etc.
Risk
a danger or possible hazard
cesarean birth
delivery of a baby through surgical incision of the abdominal and uterine walls
Western Blot Test
a blood test that is very specific in identifying HIV antibodies; used as a supplement for a positive ELISA test; not a test for AIDS
HIV -
human immunodeficiency virus- AIDS virus. virus that causes HIV and AIDS. Virus was previously refered to as the HTLV-III (human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type III) and LAV ( lymphadenopathy Associated virus)
AIDS dementia
a progressive disorder that destroys brain tissue and is characterized by withdrawal, impaired intellectual funtion and motor activity.
ADA
Americans with disabilites Act 1990- prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, public service and public accomodations. HIV is considered a DISABILITY.
HIV transmitted 3 major routes
sexual intercourse, direct injection with contaminated needles, HIV infected mother to baby ( in utero, during childbirth, or through breast milk)
Grid
(gay related immune disorder) in 1981, CDC's initial name for AIDS, becuase it predominately affected homosexual men.
Americans contract HepB each year
300,000 5-10% will go on to develop chronic infection.
bisexual
a person who has sexual relations with persons of both sexes.
Hep C symptoms
sore muscles, tired, headache, wide spread abdominal pain URQ, nausea, clay stools, loss of app or weight, some jaundice.
Therapy should be considered for all patients with
detectable HIV RNA in plasma . for low risk progression therapy may be safely deterred- reevaluate in 6 months.
Healthy people have
500-1500 CD4 cells per mililiter of blood
epidemiology
the study of disease as it spreads and involves large groups of people.
high risk behavior
behavior that is more likely to expose you to infectious agents
Rectum
the last part of the large intestines ending at the anus
HIV symptoms
fever, chills, nite sweats, fatigue, sudden weight loss, dry cough, diarrhea, swollen lymph nodes. Conditions may last several weeks.
gonorrhea
Sexually transmitted infection that is caused by a bacterium. Men: burning sensation, discharge from penis. Women: cervix infection, vaginal discharge.
hemophilia
an inherited blood disorder characterized by the absence of a factor needed for the blood to clot properly. large % of people with hemophilia have HIV from infected blood products prior to 1985
Vaccination
immunization against specific diseases by injection or by mouth so that active immunity is developed
fidelity
being faithful to a partner by having no other sexual partners
Symptoms Hep B
jaundice, clay stools, unexplained tiredness, flulike symptoms, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, confusion, and disorientation.
bacteria
germs, some of which can cause disease.
Progressive generalized lymphadenpathy (PGL)
long-term enlargement of the lymph nodes
diagnose Hep b
through blood work at Dr. office
T-Cell
a type of lymphocyte or white blood cell
casual contact
the kind of everyday touching between people in families, school etc.
gender
male or female
compulsory blood test
the idea of mandatory widespread blood testing for antibodies to HIV in certain populations.
Virus
a minute, disease-producing organism that depends on nutrients from outside body cells to keep itself alive and reproducing. Viruses cause a variety of infectious and unlike bacteria, they are unable to reproduce on their own. They are unaffected by antibiotics.
If infected with Hep B virus for more than 6 months
considered a carrier - can transmit by deep kissing, sharing food, unprotected sex, Do not donate blood - tissue- organs. Tell partner.
inoculation
a method of giving a vaccine to produce immunity
HEP C diagnosis
done through blood test. Might do biopsy if feels liver has been damaged.
vaccinations are not AN EFFECTIVE defense if
the protein coat mutates often. (ex. HIV, influenza, common cold)

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