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Holt Social Studies: Eastern World: Chapter 13 (History of West Africa)


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Mansa Musa greatly supported education. Where did he send his scholars?
By what time was Ghana rich and powerful?
mid 1000's
What is the meaning of this West African proverb: "Talking does not fill the basket in the farm?"
People cannot just talk about what they want to do, they have to do it.
A place of prayer for Muslims
Why were the people of Songhai afraid that their leader (Sunni Baru) did not support Islam?
They feared they would lose all of their trade with other Muslim countries.
Who were the first people in Ghana?
the Soninke
What year did Mans Musa take his pilgramage to Mecca?
What happens in the Sundiata?
Sundiata's father and 11 brothers are killed by and evil conqueror.
What good came from the south?
What two rivers bordered the Ghanaian Empire
Senegal River, and Niger River
Under which leader did The Songhai grow and become and empire?
Sunni Ali
What was a similarity between Sundiata and later rulers?
They all called themselves Mansa.
How many factors contributed to Ghana's end?
What does the Dausi tell?
It tells of the history of Ghana, mixed in with myths and legends.
What was Mali's most famous ruler?
Mansa Musa
When did Sunni Ali die?
How did internal rebellion contribute to Ghana's decline?
The people Ghana conquered rose up in rebellion, and took over all of Ghana.
By what year had Ghana firmly in control of West Africa's trade routes?
Silent Barter
a process in which people exchange goods without contacting each other directly
In addition to oral history how else do we know about early West Africa?
From visitors' accounts.
When did he conquer nearby kingdoms including Ghana?
By what time had the Empire collapsed?
end of the 1200's
Many West African cultures used dance to celebrate special events and ceremonies, such as?
Weddings, and funerals
a city that became a center of learning
According to one Dausi story what caused Ghana to fall?
A mighty warrior killed Bida, a Ghanaian god, and has he was dying he cursed Ghana.
How did overgrazing contribute to Ghana's end?
The Almoravid animals ate all of the grass exposing the soil to hot desert winds. The winds blew the soil away making it unusable to farm, and the farmers left in search of new homes.
Who invaded Ghana, and how long did the Ghanaians keep them at bay?
The Almoravids, 14
How did most West Africans past down history?
By oral history
What was a difference between Sundiata and later rulers?
They were Muslim, and he was not.
What did the change in trading patterns end besides the Songhai Empire?
It ended the period of great West African Empires.
What weapons did the people of Songhai use against the Moroccan Army?
Swords, spears, and arrows
Even as Mali was growing what rival kingdom was also growing, and what was its capital?
The Songhai, and its capital was Gao.
What were African masks used for, and what made them look fierce and lifelike?
Rituals, and the firelight reflected off the masks.
What roles did the Mansa have in society?
Religious, and Political
In which way did the King insure that he was richer than his subjects?
He was the only person allowed to have gold nuggets, and his subjects were only allowed to use gold dust.
After Mans Musa died who took over, and what was his relationship to Mansa Musa?
Maghan, son
Under Mansa Musa's skilled leadership Mali reached the height of its wealth, power, and fame in what time?
What were the factors that contributed to Ghana's collapse?
Invasion, overgrazing, and internal rebellion
What did Griots do in addition to telling stories?
They recited proverbs.
What did Mansa Musa do on his journey?
He introduced his empire to the Islamic world, and spread Mali's fame far and wide.
Singing was not only for entertainment it was for ...?
Helping people honor their history, and mark special occasions. Music was also played when a ruler entered the room.
What did the Griots' stories tell?
They told of important past events and of accomplishments of distant ancestors.
What made Ghana's Kings even richer than they were?
They conquered neighboring countries.
Under whom did Mali rise to power?
What are some of the Griots long poems?
How did regular Ghanaians use gold dust?
As money
Who wore Kente clothe, and why?
Kings and Queens, and for special occasions.
Niger River
The major river in west Africa
What is so special about Ibn Battua's accoun of early West Africa?
It described the political and cultural lives of West Africans in great detail?
During his reign what important trade city did Mansa Musa add to his empire?
When did Sundiata die?
How did trade change when Songhai was falling?
Overland trade declined, Atlantic port cities became more important, and European traders preferred to trade with the ports instead of Muslim traders.
Who came after Sunni Ali?
his son Sunni Baru
Before Sunni Ali the Songhai empire had been disorganized and poorly run. What did he do to build stabibility?
He unified , strengthened, and enlarged his empire. He encouraged everyone in his empire to work together, and participated in both Islam and local religions.
How did Griots liven up their stories?
The acted out the events.
hand-woven African silk fabric
Under Asika's rule what city flourished?
In what year did Sunni Ali become ruler of Songhai?
Why were Griots highly respected?
The People of West Africa were very interested in the deeds of their ancestors.
How long did Sunni Ali rule Songhai?
35 years
What did Asika do to maintain order?
He set up five providences, appointed governors loyal to him, created a professional army, and specialized departments to oversee tasks.
Because of Mansa Musa's influence what grew and gained new believers?
Under Asika what was Timbuktu known for?
The University of Sankore
Why is Sundiata spared in the killing of his family?
He is sick and does not look like a threat.
What weapons did the Moroccan Army use against the people of Songhai?
Aquebus, and cannons
In what way did Ghana's leaders make money off of the traders?
The statues were made for religious purposes and...?
To ask for their ancestors blessing.
Who did early West African art inspire?
Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and other European artist of the 1900's.
Who were the Tuareg?
They are nomads from the Sahara.
Of the West African art-forms which one is known the most, and what did they make it out of?
Masks, Wood, brass, clay, ivory, or stone
What allowed The Songhai and the North African Berbers to trade?
They shared the same religion.
How did raiders lead to Mali's decline?
They attacked and burned schools and Mosques, and Mali could never recover from the attacks.
What good came from the north?
Who was the leader of the rebellion against Sunni Baru?
Muhammed Ture
Where was Mali located?
Mali was located along the the upper Niger River.
How did Sundiata get more power, and what name did he take from them?
He took away power from the local leaders. Mansa
a major cultural and trading city in the Mali and Songhai empires
How did some historical facts get distorted when passed down from generation to generation?
The Griots confused names and events in their heads.
Why did Morocco attack Songhai?
Morocco wanted to gain control of Songhai's salt mines?
How did Ghanaian Kings control their empire?
They allowed conquered kings to retain much of their power.
What did the scholars Mansa Musa sent to Morocco do after they came back?
They built schools in Mali.
When did Mansa Musa conquer the Songhai?
The 1300's
What does the Sundiata explain?
It explains about Sundiata, Mali's great leader.
What title did Muhammed Ture chose, and what does it mean?
Askia, and it means high military rank.
Sculptors also made statues for what reason?
As a gift to the gods.
What was one of the only written languages in West Africa?
What religion was Mansa Musa?
He was Muslim.
a west African storyteller
Who did the West Africans mostly make their statues to look like?
The sculptors ancestors
Mansa Musa ruled for how many years?
What did the people of Songhai do because their king was not Muslim?
They rebelled against him.
Under whom did Ghana reach its peak?
Tunka Manin
The capital of the Songhai Empire
Who was the most famous Muslim visitor to right about early West Africa?
Ibn Battuta
short sayings of wisdom or truth
What kind of ruler was Maghan?
He was a weak ruler.
In 1431 who seized Timbuktu?
the Tuareg
Oral history
the spoken stories of a culture's history passed down to generations
During what years dis Ibn Battuta travel around the region?
1353- 1354
What did West Africans express their creativity in?
Sculpture, Mask-making, cloth-making, music, and dance

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