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first semester Ap World


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What were the river valley civilizations?
Nile River, Indus, Tigres and Euphretes, and Yellow River.
reasons for the development of a written language
writing developed to keep track of records, put down rules, methods for irrigation. the Egytians had hieroglyphics and the sumerians had cuneiform.
consequences for the development of a written language
a ruined city from the neolithic age of the indus valley.
had a planned layout of the city w/ large baths and first ever drainage system
Mesopotomia: Tigres and Euphrates
rivers that were very violent and unpredictable and caused the sumerians to believe that the gods were angry (polytheism)
the floods provided fertile soil and ample food supply
Law Code of Hammurabi
first code of law by the Babylonians under Hammurabi.
It focuses on theft, farming (or shepherding), property damage, women's rights, marriage rights, children's rights, slave rights, murder, death, and injury. The punishment is different for different classes of offenders and victims (an eye for an eye)
Christianity (beliefs and religious texts)
believed in Jesus
made the official religion of Rome by Constantine
The Bible
Judaism (beliefs and religious texts)
Hebrew Scripturs and the Talmud which puts regulations on diet and food preparation
covenant btwn Yahweh and the Hebrew ppl
Yahweh was the high god
Buddhism (Nirvana)
believe that desire results in suffering and suffering stops when desires stop.
nirvana = the enlightenment when the right conduct, meditation, wisdom releases you from rebirth, suffering and desire.
Shinto (beliefs and religious texts)
relgion in Japan
the worship of kami (ancestors and nature )
Kojiki= first written record of ancient beliefs and customs
the emperor was divine
Hinduism (karma) (beliefs and relgious texts)
belief in reincarnation
has a caste system
predominant in India
no unique founder but Aryans brought Hinduism to India
the Brahmans who were the priest were the highest and preformed ritulas
the Bhagavad-Gita
karma=individual reaps the bad actions and good actions in one life through a series of lifetimes
filal piety-children's respect for parents
5 relationships
stress on trade as bad and to invest in agriculture
in China
founder- Lao Tzu
the Tao is the way the universe flows
the ruler's duty is to impose a minimum of government, while protecting his people from experiencing material wants or strong passions. The social virtues expounded by Confucius were condemned as symptoms of excessive government and disregard of effortless action
Greece (Golden Age)
Sparta and Athens
oligarchy vs. democracy
Cultural advancement, balance, order, education, and debate were all very important as was citizen-participation in the government in athens
exc. women, foreigners and slaves could not participate
men could vote at the age of 18
Pericles was strong supporter of democracy
Greece Homer
writer of Iliad and the Oddyssey said to have started the western literature and tradition
roman republic characteristcs
elected representatives made laws for the people just like Congress in the US
Pericles supported democracy
Roman empire characteristics
religiously and culturally tolerant
enforced roman laws even though the let the indeginous people live
made roads that connected lands and had aqueducts
governors looked over provinces and made sure roman laws were followed
the captured lands were a buffer system for invaders to rome
relationship w/ christianity
hostile persecution from the romans
fearing mass uprising centuries later, Constantine made Christianity the official religion of rome
spread of Christianity to all of Roman's captured lands
Hindu Kush Mtns.
mountains in the north west
hindered invasion and contact of Europeans w/ indians
routes taken by Alexander the Great and Timur became trade routes
China the importance of silk
silk was a major export of China and led to its sucess
Tang Dynasty and Golden Age
culture, art, music and other products such as ceramics flourished
Buddhism was introduced
civil service exams
education became important
Ming Dynasty and the voyages of Zheng He
Zheng He traveled to India, SE and Africa in his voyages looking at the world beyond
but finding nothing important to facilitate trade and the ming dynasty's confucianist policies let to isolationism
reasons for collaps of the ming dynasty
mongolian invasions
American Incas Characteristics of Society
genius for organization
religion shaped culture
terraced fields
imperial unification
mummified dead rulers
divine origin
the clan
mit'a labor tax- great road builders and service in army
all wealth went to ruler
Aztec temples
used for human sacrifice
Lake Texococo
built their city in Tenochtitlan
which was a center of trade
all women were subordinate to men
simple and harsh laws
slaves were the captured
staircases pyramids
agriculture based on milpa
humna sacrifice
advanced math
rural vilage centerd
Islam and the qur'an
holy book written by Muhammad's followers
continuation of Torah
umma and Islam
5 pillars of Islam
recitation, prayer, alms to the poor, fasting during Ramadan, the pilgrimage to Mecca the hajj
resons for the spread of Islam
merchants spread and a zeal for holy war in the early stages of Islam
Muslim Empires Ottoman Osman
founder of the ottoman empire
conquered Anatolia
Muslim Empires Ottoman sultan
ruler of the empire
Ottoman Suleiman
extended much of the empire

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