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SS Ch. 4


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what happened to egypt after the middle kingdom?
egypt descended into war and violence
why did this happen?
bc of a succession of weak pharoahs and power struggles among rival nobles
who did egypt fall to?
who were the hyksos?
nomads who swept across the isthmus of suez in chariots, a weapon unknown to the egyptians
how were the hyksos driven out?
a series of warlike rulers began to restore egypt's power
queen ahlotep and kamose (drove hyksos compeltely out)
new kingdom
pharoahs sought to strengthen egypt by building an empire
how did egyptians become conquerors?
bronze weapons and two wheeled chariots
blue crown
war crown shaped like a battle helmet
woman pharoah-took over bc her stepson was too young
how was hatshepsut unique
she spent her reign encouraging trade rather than just waging war
thutmose III
hatshepsuts stepson-warlike ruler
thutmose III's invasions
led victorious invasions into palestine and syria.pushed farther into nubia
a region of africa that straddled the upper nile siver
battle of kadesh
egyptian and hittite armies fought bc they were both explanding into palestine-fought to a standstill and ended up making a peace treaty
ramses II
pharoah who made a peace treaty w/ a hittite king after the battle of kadesh
building during new kingdom
magnigicent temples, tombs (hidden in desert cliffs), and palaces
valley of the kings
near thebes -where they hid tombs for secuirty in the that they would not be plundered by grave robbers and looters
ramses II builder
stood out among nthe great buiilders of the new kingdom
added to a monumental temple to Amon, egypts chief god
-ordered a temple to be carved above nile river
decorated w. statues of himself
building comparison new and old kingdom
new kingdom-buildings not as skillfully built as in old kingdom
who was egypt invaded by?
1. people of the sea-caused great destruction
2. tribes of palestine rebelled against egpytian overlords
3. libyans raided egyptian villages
what happened to egypt after they were invaded?
it never got back its porevious power
it broke apart into regional units
isolated rural populations erected their own walled defenses
small kingdoms arose and princes of kingdoms treated egyptian officials w/ contempt
how did libyans rule egpyt?
they esptablished indepedent dynasties. they ryled egypt and erecteed cities. they embraced egyptian way of life
nubian kingdom that was emerging as a regional power
first nubian kingdom
when egypt ruled kush
egyptian governors, priests, soldiers, and artists strongly influeneced nubians
kushite princes went to egypt-learned language and worshipped engyptian gods. adopted customs and clothing styles
went back to kush w/ royal ruitals, hieroglyphics, built pyramids
after egypts decline
kush regained independence
how did kushites try to restore egyptian way of life?
by conquering egpy and outsting its libyan rulers
kushite king who overthreew libyan dynasty
who conquered egypt after nubians (kushites)
warlike people from southwest asia
place where kushite royal family moved after defeat by assyrians, far enough away from egypt to provide security
meroe became booming trade between
africa arabia and india
meroe natural resources
significant rainfall
abundant supplies of iron ore
meroe trade
traded iron tools to red sea for jewelry, cottom cloth, silver lamps, glass bottles
same between egyptian pharaohs and kushite kings
ruling from palaces, spending afterlife in stone-faced pyramids
difference between egpyitan pharoahs and kushite kings
kushites succession determined by the agreement of leaders and nobles
decline of meroe
rise of aksum, rival power, contribed to decline..dominated north african trade
how did assyria acquire a large empire?
by sophisticated military organization and state-of-the-art weaponry
where did the assyrians come from?
northern mesopotamia
how might the assyirans have developed their warlike behavior?
in response to invasions
they lacked natural barriers and repelled invaders by developed a strong army
how far did the assyrian empire stretch?
from easy and norht of the tigris river all the way to central egypt
bragged that he had sacked 89 cities and 820 villages, burned babylon, and ordered most of its inhabitants killed
4 assyiran military power things
1) ladders
2) weapons
3) tactics
4) tunnels
assyrians were savage in their treatment of defeated opponets..those who werent slaughtered were impaled or beheader
were soold into slavery
assyrian war technology
iron working technology
iron swords and iron-pointed spears
huge shields
assyrian war skills
would make bridges over wter
before attacking, they dug beneath citys walls to weaken them
foot soliders had organization
between 850 and 650 bc, the kings of assyria defeated
syria, palestine, and babylonia
how did assyria rule all the old centers of civilization and power that their empire included?
they organized their conquered territories into an empire. officials governed land closest to assyria and mde them depedent territories. assyrian kings chose their rulers and assyrian armies protected them from invasion
how did military campaigns add new territory to the empire?
it brought in taxes and tribute to assyrian treasury. if conquered people refused to pay, the assyrians detroyed their cities and sent the people into exile.
assyrias capital established by king sennacheribwalled city held one of the ancient worlds largest libraries
king ashurbanipal
could read several languages
collected more than 25,000 clay tablets from throughout the fertile crescent
some were dictionaries
why did the assyrian empire fall?
ashurbanipal was one of the last mighty kings
assyrian power had spread itself too thin
the curelty displayed by assyrians had earned them many enemies
shortly after ashurs death, nieveh fell
who made nineveh fall?
a combined army of medes, chaldeans, and others
what did the chaldeans do after they defeated the assyrians?
they made babylon their capital
chaldean king that restored babylon
wat was begachadnezzars palace known for?
hanging gardens
difference between assyrian empire and persian empire
assyrians employed military force to control a vast empire
persians would base their empire on tolerance and diplomacy, but relied on strong military to back up their policies
persian homeland
prosperous farmland and wealth of minerals.copper, lead, gold, silver
persian empire is now
persias king in 550 bc who began his conquest of several neighboring kingdoms in iron
was a military genius who led victories. conquered the entire fertile crescent and most of anatolia
-kindness toward conquered people showed his wise and tolerant view of empire
believed in honring local customs and religions
what did cyrus allow the jews to do?
he let the jews, who had been deported from their homeland by the babylonians, return to jerusalem and rebuild their temple
cyrus's son conquered egypt but publicly scorned the egyptian religion
orderd images of gofs to be burned
what happened when cambysyes died
widepsread rebellions broke out across the empire
cambyses successor\
began his career as a member of the kings bodyguard
darius's accomplishments
extended persian conquests eaast
darius's administration-provinces
divided the empire into 20 provinces, similar to the homelands of the many groups of people within the empire
under each province, people still practiced their own religion, spoke their own language, and followed many of their own laws
darius's administration-governors
each province had a governor, satrap, that was checked on my inspectors called the "kings eyes and ears" to make sure of their loyalty
darius also appointed an army leader and a tax collector for each provincee
two other tools helped persian king hold together his empire
excellent road system and use of standard money
royal road
road system of the persian empire, ran from susa in persia to sardis in anatolia
standard use of money
darius manufactured metal coins from lydians of asian minor
coins of standard value circulated throughout an extended empire
persian prophet and religious reformer who questioned why there should be so much suffering and chaos in the world
what zoraster taught
there were two spiritual armies who fought for a persons soul
at the end of time, all souls would be judged according to which side they ahd chosen
heaven and hell
god of truth and light
ahura mazda
god of darkness and evil
what is zoroastrian religion ideas similar to?
concepts of judaism, christianity, and islam
persian legacy
through tolerance and good government, the persians brought political order to southwest asia
respected other cultures
chinas most influential scholar who studyied and taught history, music, and moral character
believed in five relationships based upon family
believed in filial piety
what did confucius believe about the 5 relationships?
that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored in china if society was organized around 5 basic relationships
5 relationships
1) ruler and subject
2) father and son
3) husband and wife
4) older brother and younger brother
5) friend and friend
filial piety
children should respect their parents
what was one of confucius' jobs?
duke of Lu appointed him minister of justice
how did the zhou dynasty decline?
the lords at first represented the king, but he had ultimate power. later, the lords of independent territories began to think of themselves as independent kings and their bloody warfare led to the decline
what are the records of confucius ideas?
the writings of his students
a book confucius students wrote..his collected words
disicple who spread confucius ideas
a trained civil serice, or those who run the government.
education was imporant in career advancemnet
confucius idea
never a religion but an ethical system that became the foundation for chinese government and social order
believed that only nature was important.
a universal force called the Dao "the way" guides all things
if you seek order and harmony go by nature
only humans of all creatures of nature, fail the dao by arguing about questions of right and wrong, good manners and bad
laozi's philosophy
wat was most important for confucius?
social order of family and government
practical political thinkers that believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to restoring order.
the belieft that government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony
who were among the founders of legalism?
hanfezi and Li Si
what did legalists teach?
a ruler should provide rewards for people who carried out their duties well and disobedient people should be harshly punished-stressed punishment more than rewards
believed in controlling ideas-burned all books against government
I Ching
book of oracles used to answer ethical or practicual problems. readers threw a set of coins, inpreted the sults, and read the apropriate oracle
it helped people to lead a happy life by dispensing good advice and simple common sense
yin ang yang
two powers that together representd the natural rhythms of life
yin-feminine qualities in the universe
qin dynasty
replaced zhou dynasty
ruler employed legalist ideas to subdue warring states and unify his country
Shi Huangdi
"first emperor" of Qin dynasty
halted internal battles
defeated invaders and crushed internal resistance to his rule
his victories doubled chinas size--took over what is now vietnam
how did shi huandi act decisively to crush political opposition at home?
to destroy the power of rival warlords, he instituted a policy called "strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches"
he cmmanded all the noble families to live at the capital city under his suspicious gaze
he seized their land and carved china into 36 administrative districts
he sent quin officials to control them
how did shi huangdi silence critcism?
the emperor and his prime minister Li Su, murdered hundreds of confucian schlars
ordered "useless" books to be burned0boooks of confucian thinkers and poets who disagreed with legalists
a government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary mannner
shi huangdi devleoped an autocracy
shi huangdis program off centralization
built a highway network of over 4000 mi.
forced peasants to work on road against their will
set uniform standards for chinese witing, law, currency, and weights and measures, down o the length of cart axles, so that all vehicles could fit into the ruts of chinas main roads
-irrgation projects increased darm production
-trade blossomed bc of new road
what made the quin regime unpopular?
harsh taxes and repressive government
what did the qin successfully accomplish?
unifying china
why did people hate shi huangdi?
scholars-for his book burning
poor people-for forec larbor in building a unified wall
great wall of china
unified wall to close the gap too discourage attacks by northern nomads
forced labor
fall of qin
shi huangdis son proved less able but as cruel. peasants rebelled, and one of their leaders, a peasant from the land of han, marched his troops into the capital city. han dynasty took over

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