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AP Mod Vocab 4 2


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German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the unity of the Roman Catholic world
Martin Luther
Circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522
Ferdinand Magellan
English parson whose "Essay on Population" argued that population would always increase faster than food supply
Thomas Malthus
The economic base of feudalism; in brief, the economic system in which the serfs worked the fields of the manorial lord and provided the material wherewithal to support the noble class
Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary, who lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories
Maria Theresa
Program that advanced more than $11 billion for European recovery to sixteen W'ern nations from 1947-1953; the final cost to the US was $20 billion
Marshall Plan
German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development
Karl Marx
Idealistic patriot devoted to the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states
Giuseppe Mazzini
Work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923; the book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non-Aryans
Mein Kampf
Right-wing or moderate Russian Marxists willing to cooperate with the bourgeoisie
Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, laws
Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna
Prince Klemens von Metternich
British philosopher who published "On Liberty," advocating individual rights against gov't intrusion, and "The Subjection of Women" on the cause of women's rights
John Stuart Mill
A village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the gov't
Author of "Spirit of the Laws" and "Persian Letters"
Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his refusal to acknowledge publicly his king as Supreme Head of the Church Clergy of England
Sir Thomas More
Former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978
Aldo Moro
Confrontations in 1906 and 1911 between Germany and the nations of France and England over William II's interest in colonial gains in Africa
Moroccan crises
The founder and leader of the Italian Fascist Party
Benito Mussolini
Japanese city on which the US dropped an atomic bomb on August 9, 1945, bringing the Japanese to surrender and an end to WWII
Consul and later emperor of France, who established several of the reforms (Code Napoleon) of the French Revolution during his dictatorial rule
Napoleon Bonaparte
The former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'etat, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire
Napoleon III
The political party of Adolf Hitler
National Socialists (Nazis)
The shared traditions and common loyalties uniting peoples, speaking a similar language (there may be dialect difference)
An agreement between Hitler and Stalin to remain neutral if the other went to war; also, German acknowledgment of Russia's sphere of influence in the Baltics and a secret clause agreeing to the division and takeover of Poland
Nazi-Soviet Pact
The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions
Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulate agrarian production
New Economic Policy
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war
New Model Army
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority, often by Machiavellian means
New Monarchs
English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited a universe operating in accord with natural law
Isaac Newton
German philosopher and forerunner of the modern existentialist movement; he stressed the role of the Ubermensch, or "Superman," who would rise above the common herd of mediocrity
Friedrich Nietzsche
The last czar of the Romanov dynasty, whose government collapsed under the pressure WWI
Nicholas II
Date of the declaration by the more liberal aristocrats and bourgeosie of the National Assembly at a secret meeting to abolish the feudal regime in France
Night of August 4, 1789
Military alliance founded in 1949, between the US and Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy; later Greece, Turkey and West Germany joined
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
British feminist whose legal persistence resulted in the Married Women's Property Act, which gave married women the same property rights as unmarried women
Caroline Norton
Measures enacted in Nazi Germany that excluded Jews from white-collar professions and from marriage and habitation with non-Jews
Nuremberg Laws
Proceedings held after 1945 to convict German military and civilian leaders of "crimes against humanity" for their roles in the extermination of Jews and other peoples
Nuremberg War Crimes trials
British suffragette and founder of the Women's Social and Political Union
Emmeline Pankhurst
A movement to unite Slavs in the Balkans
The revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war with the newly elected National Assembly set up at Versailles after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War
Paris Commune
French law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king's edict in Old Regine France
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters
Parliament Act of 1911
Russian author of "Dr. Zhivago," a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era
Boris Pasternak
The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany; it allowed each prince - whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist - to choose the established creed of his territory
Peace of Westphalia
Document in which Charles V officially recognized Lutheranism as a religion in the Holy Roman Empire that a ruler or free city had the liberty to choose for all subjects in the region
Peace of Augsburg
The pact concluding the War of Spanish Succession, forbidding the union of France, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England
Peace of Utrecht
The promise Lenin made to his supporters on his arrival in April 1917 in Russia after his exile abroad
"Peace, land, and bread"
The thaw in cold war tensions between the superpowers
Peaceful coexistence
Napoleon's long-drawn-out war with Spain
Peninsular War
The first woman to be executed for a political crime in Russia. She was a member of a militant movement that assassinated Czar Alexander II in 1881
Sofia Perovskaia
The Romanov czar who initiated the westernization of Russian society by traveling to the West and incorporating techniques of manufacturing as well as manners and dress
Peter the Great

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