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What four areas of the world does the author say civilization began?
Mesopotamia, India, Egypt and China
According to the author, which of these areas was the root of Western Civilization?
Mesopotamia and Egypt
Quote Louis Leakey on pre-history. What is the significance of this quote for our class?
"Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light."
Describe the spread of Homo sapiens as contended by the author.
Hominoids existed in Africa 3 to 4 million years ago. 1.5 million years ago, Homo erectus left Africa and moved into Europe and Asia. Homo sapiens were found in Germany, Europe and the Middle East, dating back 250,000 years ago. Homo sapiens sapiens, appearing in Africa 200 to 250,000 years ago, spread outside of Africa 100,000 years ago.
According to the author, when had Homo sapiens spread worldwide?
10,000 BC
a group of homo sapiens who lived in Europe, parts of Asia and Northern Africa
relating to the stone age when tools were made of stone
hunting and gathering food done by Paleolithic people
the period between Paleolithic and Neolithic. Hunting and gathering was replaced by domestication of animals and food production
the new Stone Age. Neolithic peoples made a new type of polished stone axe
Where is the Fertile Crescent? What is its significance?
Southern Mesopotamia. It was crucial for the production of crops since it the soil was very fertile from the silt. The Cresent is enriched by the Tigris and Euphrates River.
What was the "revolution" that took place in the Neolithic era? What was its impact?
The Agricultural Revolution. When people began planting and domesticating animals, there wasnÂ’t a need to travel. People began building houses and settling down. Because of this they began to acquire things and trading with others. They began to make things and so the division of labor began. Men and women began to define relationship roles. Fixed dwellings, domesticated animals, farming, division of labor, men holding powerÂ… these are all parts of our world today. Everything we do still relies on storing and growing food. The Neo people accomplished this back then.
What are the six basic characteristics of civilization?
Urban Revolution, distinct religious structure, political and military structures, social structure based on economic power, the development of writing, significant artistic and intellectual activity.
What is the mysterious question regarding civilization? What are the possible answers?
No one knows really when or how civilization began. Challenges forced human beings to make efforts that resulted in the rise of civilizations. Material forces made possible the specialization of labor and development of large communities with bureaucratic organization. Religion provided a sense of unity and purpose that made organized activities possible
What agricultural/ecological factors shaped Mesopotamia?
The Fertile Cresent provided fertile silt.
A tower located in the heart of the city-state. The god was thought to dwell symbolically here
govÂ’t ruled by religion
Semitic people. Located to the north of the Sumerian city-states
the leader of the Akkadians. He established a new dynastic empire after defeating the army of Lug. His empire was the entire land of Mesopotamia and more. Great economic growth and prosperity but successors were unable to preserve the empire. It fell 2100 B.C.
language used such as Akkadian, Arabic, hebrew, Babylonian
a system of authority that inserts gender into the hierarchy by insisting that only higher class males are born to be able to control basic resources
The worship of or belief in more than one god
What was the social class structure of Mesopotamia?
Kings, Freeman and Slaves
What is the significance of Hammurabi?
He made the Code of Hammurabi that regulated peopleÂ’s relationships with one another.
Describe in general the Code of Hammurabi.
It emphasizes the principle of retribution and punishments that vary according to social status.
What subject is addressed more than any other in the Code of Hammurabi?
Marriage and the family.
Describe cuneiform. What was its most common use?
The Sumerians used cuneiform – a wedge-shaped style of writing. It was used to keep records.
Describe the flood narrative in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Gilgamesh is an abusive god who rules the citizens of Uruk. The citizens ask the gods to send a competitor to keep him busy. They send Enkidu and the 2 battle - neither wins and they become friends. Ishtar attempts to seduce Gilgamesh but he refuses her. Her dad sends a bull in to kill them but they kill the bull instead. Enkidu dies bc of this and looks for immortality. He cant find it because everlasting life is for the gods.
How was the Nile River different than the Tigris and Euphrates? What was the impact of this difference?
The nile travels north. The flooding was predictable and was life enhancing - not life threatening.
How do historians divide Egyptian history?
Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New.
The Old Kingdom was located here, south of the delta.

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