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History, Section 13


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____ ____________ __ began ruling Russia
Czar Nicholar II
family name was
Followers of the ideas of ___ ____ organized two major political parties
Karl Marx
name these two major political parties that were formed by the followers of the ideas of Karl Marx
name the leader of the Bolsheviks
Vladimir Lenin
Revolution of _______
In 1905 the ____ ___________ ____ (which Russia later ___) was making the ______ governments even more ___________
Russo-Japanese war (which Russia later lost) was making the czarist governments even more unpopular
Thousands of __________ _______ marched the czar's palace to ask for better _____ _________ and _________ ________
factory workers marched to the czar's palace to ask for better working conditinos and better pay
The czar was _______ ____
not there
Although the group was _________, soldiers killed ________. This was later called _________ _________
peaceful, soldiers killed hundreds
Called Bloody Sunday
________ and _________ occurred throughout the country
strikes and riots
_______ were organized
Define a Soviet
Groups or councils of workers that voiced worker's complaints
This document was released by Nicholas II
October Manifest
The October Manifest included (2) things
1. A constitution which would guarantee more rights
2. A Parliament called the Duma would make laws
Later the czar would little power to this group
The Revolution ended. Conditions changed ________
World war one was _________ due to the many Russian _________ and the _______ _______ of the war and the __ government
unpopular due to the many russian casualities and the bad management ofthe war and the czar government
________ _ personally took command of the ________ _______. He left his ___ in control of the government
Nicholas II personally took command of the Russian troops.He left his wife in control of the government
Alexandra ( the czarina) allowed _________ _________ (Grigori) tohave much influence in the government
Gregory Rasputin
Rasputin had the ability to help ________
Son of Nicholas and Alexandra
Heir to the throne
had hemophilia
___________ was unpopular with many _________ and on December 1916 he was assassinated
Rasputin, Russians
March Revolution of _____
in march 1917 ____ broke out
Czar was forced to __________
A ___________ (temporary) government was organized
Was not Communist
the provisional government
Continued Russia's involvement in WW1q
The provisoinal government
The Germans arranged for ____ the Bolshevik leader, to return to Russia in April 1917
Lenin had been in exile in ____________
Lenin promised the __________ that if he took over ________, then he would withdraw _______ from World War I
Germans that if he took over Russia, he would withdraw Russia from WWI
This was Lenin's slogan
"Peace, bread and land"
Lenin called for Russia's _________ _________ ______________, _________ for everbody, and _____ for the peasants
withdrawal from WWIL, food for everybody and land for the peasants
________ Revolution of 19___
November Revultion of 1917
Also called the Bolshevik Revolution
November Revolution of 1917
Overthrew the provisional government
Leader of the provisional government
Alexander Kerensky
Fled Russia
Alexander Kerensky
Later lived the U.S.
Alexander Kerensky
Who became the new Russian leader
negotiated a peace treaty with Germnay by which Russia withdrew from WWI
negotiated a peace treaty with __________ by which Russia withdrew from _____
Germany by which Russia withdrew from WWI
Lost much territory as a result of the treaty
Became known as Communists
controlled the government but a civil war was fought between the ______ and those who opposed them
Bolsheviks controlled the government-war was fought between the Bolsheviks
name for the communist army
The Reds
__________ executed the czar and his family
Rumors said that
one or more of the family members escaped
Dozens of people claimed to be the daighter named
It is highly _________ that any of the family members ____________
unlikely-members escaped
Millions died from _____, _________ and __________ during the _________ _________ ______
disease, warefare and starvation during the Russian Civil War
Thousands suspected of opposing the Bolsheviks were _________
Communists attempted to abolish ____________
Because of the drastic problems facing Russia, Lenin began the ____
What did the NEP stand for?
New Economic Policy
who started teh NEP?
rUSSIA became known as the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
A power struggle developed between _____ _________ and ________ _________ over who would take Lenin's place
Leon Trotsky and Joseph Lenin
________ exiled _________ to Siberia
Stalin exiled Trotsky
Stalin then _____ trotsky to Siberia
_________ was dictator of the USSR until his death
assassinated while living in mexico
Stalin was ____, _____ and _________
shrewd, ruthless, and paranoid
Ended the NEP
set goals in quotas for agriculture and industry
NEP, set by Stalin
___________ _________- increased tremendously though many products were of poor quality
industrial production
________ ___________ of land was ended
private ownership
Farmers were forced to live on ____________ __________ ___________
government owned farms
Those who resisted were ___________ or imprisoned-millions of others starved
Used a series of purges
Purpose-eliminate those who __________ with him and those he considered to be a ______ to him
disagreed, threat
Who were some of the people Stalin "purged"?
Most Bolshevik leaders who had worked with Lenin
Many army officers
by several major world countries virtually controlled parts of
What happened in the Revolution of 1911?
The Chinese overthrew their emperor and the ruling dynasty (royal family)
One of the leaders in the movement to overthrow the dynasty
Sun Yat-Sen
Became first president of the Republic of China
Sun Yat-Sun
Established a political party called the _____________
Sun Yat-Sen (Kuomintang, Guomindang)
Much of China was the control of Chinese ________
What is a Chinese warlord?
Military leader with their own private army
____________ wanted to defeat these warlords so China could be _________
Kuomintang, unified
Leader of the non-communist part of China
Chiang Kai-Shek
Known as the National Chinese
Non-communist part of China
Leader of the communist part of Russia
Mao Zedong
A ____ war began between Chiang's and Mao's army
Includes such nations as New Zealand, South Africa, Canada and Australia
Commonwealth of Nations
Name the nations in the Commonwealth of Nations
New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, Australia
The commonwealth of nations was also called the ____________ _______________
British Commonwealth
The Commonwealth of Nations is a _____________ group consisting of ______________, and most of the independent countries once under ______ control
voluntary group consisting of Britain and most of the independen coutries once under British control
Chief spokesman of a movement in ____ that wanted India to have __________ from Britain
Mohandis Gandhi/India/independence
"Mahatma" means
"Great Soul"
Used civil disobedience
Mohandas Ghandi
Define civil disobedience
peaceful refusal to obey laws that are considered unjust
civil disobedience is also called
passive resistance
Illegal, but peaceful protestin
civil disobedience or passive resistance
Followed mnay of Gandhi's ideas
Martin Luther King Junior
Largely because of Gandhi's leadership, Great Britain granted India more self government but not
Most countries had high unemployment rates for much of this period
There was a _________ ___________ by the 1930's
worldwide depression
France had built a line of ___________ along its _______ with _______, ____________ and a small portion of ________
fortifications along its borders with Germany, Luxembourg and a small portion of Belgium
These french fortifications were called the
Maginot Line
Purpose of te Maginot Line
to stop German attack
stop the Germans in WWII
Did not
Organized a political party called the Fascist party
Benito Mussolini
Mussolini's followers were called the "_____ _____"
Black Shirts
Became Prime Minister of _____; also became the ______ of the nation
Italy, dictator
Mussolini used the title " __ _____" which means ______ _______
il Duce which means great leader
After WWI Germany's new government was a democratic one called the ________ _________
Weimer Republic
_________- had difficulty paying the large reparations it owed
German money, the ______, had become nearly worthless
the WWI allies _________ ___ __________ _______ ________ _____ _______ Germany had to pay each year-this helped Germany's situation
agreed to reduce the amount of money
Corporal in the Germany army
Adolf Hitler
joined political party called the ____
took part in a Nazi attempt to
overthrow the German government, Adolf Hitler
this attempt to overthrow the german government ______
Hitler was then _______ _______ ____________
thrown in jail for joining the attempt to overthrow the government
in ___ he wrote a autobiography called "_____ _____" outlinin his ideas
jail, Mein Kamf
Hitler claimed the Germans were a "________ _______"
master race
later hitler was appointed _________--
equivalent of Prime Minister
Shortly after taking office, the Reichstag building ________
Hitler blamed the fire on the ___________
The fire was probably set by the __________
Hitler asked for and received ________ ________ from the _________ to handle the situation
emergency power from the Reichstag to handle the situation
Soon Hitler became ______
He used the secret police _______ to eliminate anyone he disliked
He took the title "__ ______"
der Fuhrer
what did der fuhrer mean?
the leader
He called his government the _________ _________
Third Reich
both hitler and mussolini
established a totalitarian government
Hated Communism
German Nazis and Italian Fascists are
communists are
Gained power largely due to economic depression in their countries
Mussolini and Hitler
Virtually worshipped by the Japanese
Emperor Hirohito
Had little government power
When Japan experience economic problems, its ______ ___________ took control of the government
military leaders
Japan owned a railroad in ________
In 1931 an explosion occurred on the railroad and Japan used it for an excuse to invade
Explosion was set by the ________
when the League of Nations condemned Japan for invading _________, Japan ___________ from the League
Manchuria, withdrew
_______ and ____'s armies temporarily stopped their civil war to fight Japan
Chiang's and Mao's
Civil war occurred there
The Spanish Fascists were led by General
Francisco Franco
The Spanish Fascists received help from ________ and _____________
italy and germany
The spanish republicans wanted a ________
a republic is when
people elect their own representatives
Some _________ ________ were communists
spanish representatives
_________ ______ sent soldier toheo this side
Soviet Union, the spanish republicans
Volunteers came from ________, _________ andthe __ to help the Republicans
Britain, France, U.S.
Fascists ___
__________ became dictator
remained neutral in WWII
January 1905
Bloody Sunday, started when the people peacefully asked for better worknig conditions and better pay
January revolutoin of 1905 was in
March 1917
provisional government was set up
What happened march 1917?
provisional (temporary_ governemnet was set up, the czar was forced to abdicate. Army joined cause of revolutoin
November 1917
Also called the Bolshevik REvolutoin
Lenin became the new Russian leader in this revolutoin
November 1917
Revolution of 1911
consisted of the overthrowing of the royal family
china, revolution of 1911

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