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Ancient Rome


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First Roman emperor; won the civil war following Julius Cearsar's assassination and went on to unify the empire and establish the Pax Romana
A religion based on the teachings of Jesus, as recorded in the New Testiment
Ruler of the Egyptian government in Alexandria who backed Caesar in the civil war he waged from 49 to 45 B.C.
A farmer and trader
What brought around the end of the Pax Romana?
The Pax Romana ended when large armies invaded from the north
Follower of Jesus who helped spread Christianity throughout the Roman world
Tiber River
A river flowing southward from north-central Italy across the Latium plain, and into the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Apennine Mountains
A mountain range on the Italian peninsula
Why did grapes become and important crop in ancient Italy?
Grapes became an important crop in ancient Italy because it was used for wine and wine was important for trade
Latium Plain
A plain on the west coast of Italy on which the city of Rome was built
A high, arched structure built to carry water over long distances
A person who speaks on behalf of the citizens
A church official who leads a large group of Christians in a particular region
Site in northern Africa where the Roman army defeated the Carthaginian army in 202 B.C.
A small town south of Jerusalem where Jesus is said to have been been born
One of two government leaders
The science of planning and constructing buildings
Historian of the Roman Republic who wrote about the struggle between the plebeians and patricians of Rome
Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the Jews, the ancient Roman name for Judea, in recent times, the British protectorate that became Israel in 1947
The city market and meeting place in the center of Rome
Punic Wars
Series of conflicts between Rome and Carthage
What did the Roman religion have in common with that of ancient Greece?
The Roman religion used the major Greek gods as part of their religion. They had lifted it from the Greeks.
Pax Romana
A period of peace for the Roman Empire that began with the rule of Augustus in about 27 B.C. and lasted around 200 years
A special leader the Jewish people believed will be sent by god to guide them and sey up God's rule on Earth. Christians believe Jesus to be the Messiah
A city established as the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire by the emperor Constantine in A.D. 330 now called Istanbul
Civil War
An armed conflict between groups within one country
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
A branch of Christianity that developed in the Byzantine Empire and that did not recognize the Pope as its supreme leader
A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place
Religious leader and founder of Christianity
A member of a noble family
The bishop, or church leader, of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church
How did Rome come to be founded, according to legend? What role does geography play in this story?
Romolus and Remus were thrown into a river to die. A mother wolf saved them and raised them. Together they overthrew their grandfathers bad brother. They were strong and brave. They founded a city on the spot where they had been rescued and Romolus killed Remus so the city was named Rome after Romolus. Geography played a role in this story becasue Rome later expanded of seven hills and these were good for defense. Also, the river was good for traveling. Lastly, the Latium plain was surrounded by inactive volcanoes. Ash from earlier eruptions had made thin but good soil. This allowed farmers on the Latium plain to have large surpluses of food.
New Testiment
The seond part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and his early followers
A simple story that contains a message or truth
A small town in northern Judea where, according to the New Testiment, Jesus grew up
A ruler who has absolute power
General of Carthage who marched his army from Spain to Rome in the Second Punic War
A form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them
An island in the Mediterranean Sea off the southwest tip of the Italian peninsula
The former center of both the ancient Roman Rebublic and the Roman Empire, capital of present day Italy.
One of the 12 closest followers of Jesus, chosen by him to help him teach
A Roman athlete, usually a slave, criminal, or prisoner of war, who was forced to fight for the entertainment of the public
Julius Caesar
Roman general who became the republic's dictator
An ancient region and Roman providence that included most of present-day France
Roman general who defeated Hannibal in the Battle of Zama outside Carthage, North Africa, in 202 B.C.
The land in the eastern Mediterranean reguin populated by Jews at the time of the Roman empire
A large, domed temple built in ancient Rome to honor many gods and goddesses
What happened to the republican government of Rome when Julius Caesar took control?
The republican Roman government turned into a dictatorship when Julius Caesar
A periodic count of all the people living in a country, city, or other region
Europe's highest mountains, extending in an arc from the Mediterranean coast to the Balken penninsula
An ancient city on the north coast of Africa
One of the 12 apostles of Jesus; Roman Catholics consider him to be the first Pope, or bishop of Rome
Twelve Tables
The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450 B.C. that became the foundation of Roman law
An ancient city in southwestern Italy that was buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvivus in A.D. 79
Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part
Byzantine Empire
The name by which the eastern half of the Roman empire became known some time after A.D. 400
Roman Catholicism
A branch of Christianity that developed in the western Roman Empire and that recognized the Pope as its supreme head
The lawmaking body and most powerful branch of government in ancient Rome's Republic
Elected leader of Rome
Roman emperor who founded Constantinople as the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire

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