This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.


finished, turn on "ignore . . . stuff in parenthesis, punctuation, case, and spaces"


undefined, object
copy deck
Kenya African National Union
In 1960, the KAU was renamed, and the imprisoned Kenyatta was elected president. After his release in 1962, he negotiated the terms of Kenya's independence at the London Conference.
Mau Mau Revolt
(1952-1956) Anti-colonial militancy resulted in the Mau Mau Revolt. The term could have come from British "Freedom Fighters," Kikuyu translation of "Greedy Eating" or phrase Mzungu Arudi Uingereza Mwafrica Apate Uhuru meaning Let the Europeans return to England so that the African may get freedom. To join, recruits had to eat food soaked in goat's blood. Started with the murder of an African chief who was a British loyalist (October 1952), the British govt started a State of Emergency. Troops were rushed to Kenya. The Mau Mau murdered a white farmer and family in January 1953, British killed thousands in their attacks of Kikuyu villages (many Kikuyu fled to the forests). British slaughtered livestock, burned crops, and hung over 1000 Africans in the first year. Failed militarily, but brought international attention to the brutality, and pushed the British to accept Kenyan independence.
Jomo Kenyatta
This person was raised in the countryside near Mt. Kenya, and educated at the Church of Scotland Missionary School. His political career began in 1922 when he joined the E. African Association. Became the secretary general and editor of the KCA journal. He spend 1931-1946 in London, where he studied. He became the president of the KAU. He was arrested in 1952, tried and convicted in 1953 of "managing the Mau Mau terrorist organization" and sentenced to 7 yrs. in prison. He became the country's first Prime Minister, and Kenya was named after him. He ruled Kenya until his death in 1978.
The British moved their capital here in 1901.
Kenya African Union (KAU)
Replaced the KCA, and formed by Jomo Kenyatta. It included many ethnic groups, and its main goal was independence. Kenyatta was the president of the KAU.
The language that Swahili people speak, it incorporates Bantu and Arabic words, with a few Portuguese.
British Kenya
GB's main objective was to make Kenya self-sufficient. They moved their capital from Mombasa to Nairobi in 1901.
Scramble for Africa
Germany claimed PD Tanzania, and Britain took Kenya. GB and Germany partitioned the region.
Resistance to British Rule
Jomo Kenyatta led the effort in Kenya's fight for independence.
End of Swahili Independence
Around 1498, the Portuguese captured Kilwa, Malindi, Zanzibar. In 1593, they took Mombasa. They began to see themselves as representatives of Christ. They built a fort, Fort Jesus, in Mombasa, per orders of King Philip II because they felt like they needed protection from the Turks who were sending expeditions along the Red Sea and E. Africa. But it was the Omani Sultans who attacked unsuccesfully in 1631. Since only 100 Portuguese men lived a the fort, it was difficult to protect. In 1696, the Omani sent an army to Mombasa, resulting in a two-and-a-half year war. The Omani won, and the Omani Sultan appointed a new governor.
Arab Influences on Swahili
Religion (Swahili adopted a form of Islam), language, occupation (traders), clothing, architecture (large wooden doors, intricate carvings, verandas, large windows)
Swahili Islands
Lamu, Malindi, Pate (Kenya). Pemba, Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mafia (Tanzania). Sofala (Mozambique).
Native Registration Act
(1915) All African adults were required to have ID cards whenever they left their Native Reserve. If a person appeared where they did not belong, or did not have their ID card, they could be jailed
An African group in w.'ern Tanzania, some of whom served as slave porters. They were sent by the Shirazi to bring African slaves to the coast. They brought 32k-50k slaves to the coast each year between the 1850s and 1890s. They captured slaves from the hinterland to haul ivory that was taken along the caravan route, then sold the ivory and slaves to the Shirazi.
Bantu (Pre-Swahili)
An African people who have mostly oral history. Around 800 BC, they migrated from the hinterland to PD Somalia (probably due to drought). Around 500 BC, they began to trade with the locals and explore via dhow. They had a simple lifestyle of fishing and farming.
Where did the slaves come from
The Swahili were not slaves. Dark-skinned Swahili of mostly African heritage who lived in Swahili towns and were part of their Swahili culture that was controlled by the Sultan (and/or Shirazi.) The slaves were Africans who were taken from the hinterland.
A Tanzanian city that, in 1840, became the capital of Oman.
Vasco de Gama
Wanted to get in the lucrative spice trade between East Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.
End of Slavery in E. Africa
The British dominated PD Kenya and controlled it by 1877. The Germans took over part of PD Tanzania, and came up with a way to have slaves buy their own freedom. After the coastal slaves were free, they attempted to blend in with the Swahili, but most suffered because they didn't own any land.
Land beyond the coastal region, often referred to as "the bush," "the country," or "mainland interior."
Operation Anvil
April 1954. 25k British troops rounded up 70k Kikuyu for interrogation. Around 30k-80k were taken to prison camps (their families were taken to native reserves). The Mau Mau troops dwindled from 15k in 1953 to 2k in 1955 to about 500 in 1956. Prisoners were severely beaten, when this news was released the British stopped (international pressure). The death toll on the British side was about 700, on the Kenyan side estimates range from 11k-50k.
Hammerton Treaty
(1845) was signed by GB and Sayyid Said, and banned all slave shipments outside of the Sultan's East Africa land
Fort Jesus
Fort Jesus was located in Mombasa, and built by the Portuguese. After the Omani won in 1698, the Fort was used as a barracks.
King Philip II
The Spanish King of Portugal who ordered the construction of Fort Jesus
Bantu Influences on Swahili
Thatched roofs, medicine men, belief in spirits (parts of indigenous religions were still practiced), occupation (commercial fishermen), language, clothing
Shirazi (Mbwere)
The Shirazi spoke Kiswahili, and were upper-class rulers who claimed to be descended from the Middle East. They were proud of not having any African blood (although they probably did.) They were often the rulers of an island under the control of the Sultan.
Tribal Chiefs
Traditionally, the oldest male made the decisions in a clan. The Legislative Council appointed tribal chiefs, who were not elders, to rule the Native Reserves. The tribal chiefs were given land, money, or alcohol for performing their duties. Their duties were to recruit labor, and follow through with the Native Authority Ordinance.
Native Authority Ordinance
(1912) Tribal chiefs forced members of their tribe to work in a factory or for a white farmer in the White Highlands for up to two months a year.
Importance of the British RailRoad
To expand trade, the British needed to build a railroad from Mombasa to Nairobi. They recruited indentured servants and Indians to build it, they reached Nairobi in 1899 and the railroad was completed in 1901. The railroad helped the British troops suppress rebels.
Life pertaining to the sea
Kenya's motto, meaning "Unity"
Swahili Towns
Mogadishu (Somalia). Mombasa (Kenya).
African Tax
In order to pay the tax, Africans had to work on coffee or tea plantations for the white settlers.
Kikuyu Central Association (KCA)
Replaced in the ECA in 1928. It's journal was used to discuss the KCA's demands: return of stolen land, improved social services, African representation in the Legislative Council, and the repeal of taxes. It was soon banned.
Moresby Treaty
The Moresby Treaty (1822) was signed by Great Britain and the Sultan of Oman, and banned all exportation of slaves to all Christian nations. It did not ban slave exportation to non-Christian countries, and slaves were exported to Oman, India, and Indonesia.
"People of the Coast." The Swahili lived along the eastern coast of Africa, and on nearby islands, a distance spanning 1,100 miles (from Somalia to Mozambique).
E. African Association (EAA)
A short-lived Kikuyu organization that formed to regain stolen lands from the white settlers. It was banned in 1925.
Legislative Council
(1906) The British began an all-white legislative council to run govt. affairs. It forced hundreds of thousands of Africans into Native Reserves, disrupted the traditional hierarchy of African clans, made the Native Registration Act, and instilled tax.
Native Reserves
Native Reserves had poor farmland and were overcrowded. Thousands of Africans were forced to live here
Traders sold ivory, mangrove, coconut oil, tortoise shells, rhino horns, cloves, gold, and slaves. They received whale oil, carpets, incense, pots, glassware, cloth, perfume, ink, paper, beads, iron and steel. They traded with the Persians (Iran) and the Arabs (mainly from Oman).
The capital city of Oman until 1840, located off the northeast coast (of Oman)
Swahili clothing was a blend of Arabic, African (and now Western) clothing. The Muslim influenced kofia caps, kanzu robes, and bui-buis.
Arab/Omani (Pre-Swahili)
Arab traders began exploring the coastal region around 200 BC. In around 100 AD, Arabs (from Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia) migrated to to the coast. By 500 AD, fusion of the Bantu and Arab cultures began. There was little racism between Arab men, and freely married African women. Generations of intermarriage produced the Swahili.
Treatment of slaves
On some islands, slaves worked with heavy chains attached to their legs, arms, and/or neck. They worked around 15 hrs. a day on irrigation systems, harvesting crops, cutting and hauling firewood, and working in mills. Slaves who didn't work hard enough were whipped.
Sailboats which ranged in size, and were used by the Bantu. Some had oars.
Swahili architecture was a blend of African (thatched roofs) and Arabic (large wooden doors with intricate carvings, large verandas, and windows). Square, coral buildings were a uniquely Swahili aspect.
Sayyid Said
The Sultan of Zanzibar, who moved his capital to Zanzibar because his investments were there.
Swahili merchants exported goods from the hinterland in exchange for goods from Indian merchant ships.
Sir Edward Northey
Sir Edward Northey stole 13,000 acres of fertile land from the Africans in 1921
Omani Sultans
These people first attacked the Portuguese in 1631. They were Royal Omani (AKA "Diwan")

Deck Info