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History Exam Matching Section


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(1556-1605)-greatest Mughal ruler that constantly expanded borders while tolerating Hindus and Christian missionaries (to the point of Muslim dislike). Professional civil service and 'The Divine Faith.'
1483-1530)-charismatic descendent of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan, began Mughal conquest of northern India using advanced weapons/elephants
Napoleon Bonaparte
– Corsican that rose in the French military during the revolution to First Consul, became military dictator, concordat w/ Catholic Church, Civil Code, eventually defeated by British/losses in Russia
John Calvin
(1509-1564) –.Protestant convert, Institutes of the Christian Religion, vocal about predestination/election, converted Geneva, worship strictly by scripture, cooperative church and state
Nicholas Copernicus
(1473-1543) – heliocentric conception (planets revolve around sun in perfect circles, earth rotates, first challenge to scientific tradition), Polish
Elizabeth I
– Queen of England after “Bloody” Mary, returned England to moderate Protestantism (illegitimate if Catholic), defeated Spanish armada.
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650) – Cartesian dualism (separation of mind and matter; father of rationalism), analytical geometry (new language).
Prince Henry-Portugal
(1394-1460) – led exploration, creating school for navigators; wanted to spread Christianity (against Muslims) and help Portuguese trade, ended up helping W. Africa slave trade to Europe.
Henry VIII
(1509-1547) - King that led the English Reformation so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragon (wife number one) without papal consent (through archbishop cranmer), became supreme head of Church of England, but didnt change doctrine.
Ignatius of Loyola
1491-1556) – Spanish nobleman founded Society of Jesus (Jesuits) as part of the Catholic reformation; complete loyalty to pope, helped Catholicism in Germany/E. Europe.
(ruled 1661-1722) – Manchu ruler of China, secured borders, patronized arts, won over ethnic Chinese w/ Confucian Sacred Edict.
Johannes Kepler
(1571-1630) – using Brahe’s star data, made laws of planetary motion, showed elliptical orbits (crushing Ptolemy’s theory). Oh yeah, and his mom was accused of witchcraft.
John Locke
– Enlightenment, Essay Concerning Human Understanding (no innate ideas – experiences shaped reality), any violation of life/liberty/property breaks social contract and justifies revolution
Louis XVI
(1774-1792 executed) – French King, war and luxury costs made him call Estates-General for financial help, giving power back to nobles and eventually leading to Nat. Assembly and Revolution.
Martin Luther
– German monk and professor (1513-16), Ninety-Five Theses (indulgences don’t save), excommunicated but got support of many German princes, sola scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide
Niccolo Machiavelli
1469-1527) – Renaissance Florentine, wanted Italy to unite and kick out foreigners, The Prince, Raison De’tat (morality under the state, powerful gov’t will be feared by evil people).
Karl Marx
(1818-1883) – w/ Friedrich Engels wrote Communist Manifesto and Das Capital, history is just class struggle (between bourgeoisie upper and proletariat lower), classes should be eliminated.
Mehmet II
(1451-1481) – Ottoman emperor, captured Constantinople (destroying remnants of Byzantine empire) and made it the capital.
Baron de La Brede et de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) – French Enlightenment intellectual, Spirit of the Laws (compared republics, monarchies, and despotism).
Sir Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) – Principia, three laws of motion w/ universal law of gravity (explained others work, world-machine still dominates worldview).
Maximilien de Robespierre
– Frenchman dominated Committee of Public Safety, tried to continue Reign of Terror too long, turned on and guillotined.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1788) – Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind (people enslaved by gov’t), The Social Contract (society should firmly governed by general will), Emile (education should encourage, balance heart and mind).
Shah Ismail
(1487-1524) – Founder of Safavids, led army to seize most of Iraq/Iran, provoked Ottomans by preaching Shi’ism in Asia Minor. (Descendent of Safi al-Din).
Suleyman I "the Magnificent"
(1520-1566) – great Ottoman sultan, threatened Europe by going up the Danube and taking much of Hungary and up to Vienna in Austria before being defeated by Spanish fleet.
Adam Smith
(1723-1790) – Enlightenment Scot, wrote The Wealth of Nations; gov’t for army, police, and public works and shouldn’t interfere in economics
Sufi al Din
– leader of Turkic people in Azerbaijan, claimed descendence from Ali (Shi’ite), practiced Sufi mysticism, provided line for Shah Ismail.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
(1598-1616) – third Japanese unifier, began powerful, long-lasting dynasty of Shoguns from capital Edo (where he was daimyo).
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
(1582-1598) – second Japanese unifier, rose from farmer through military, puts capital at Osaka and brings s. islands under rule, fails to conquer Korea; Japan still “feudal.”
James Watt
1736-1819) – Scottish engineer built steam engine to pump water and rotary engine to drive machinery, providing power to multiplying cotton mills in the Industrial Revolution.
Zhenghe/Cheng Ho
– Ming Chinese admiral sent by Emperor Yongle in 1405 w/huge fleet to explore Indian Ocean, but put at bay in 1433 when foreign exchange started posing a cultural threat.

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