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How did Geography affect the way early romans traded?
Because there were few natural harbors on the italian peninsula, early romans did not trade with outsiders very much. Although the land was mountainous, the mountains were not very rugged, so they traded with each other a lot.
What is the historical explanation behind the founding of rome?
A Latin community started on a hill near the Tiber River. This proved to be a very good site for a village. The village eventually grew to be the city of Rome.
What is the mythological explanation behind the founding of rome?
The cruel brother of a Latin king who seized the throne from the rightful leader. When the real king's daughter gave birth to twin boys, the tyrant feared that the boys would take the thrown from him when they grew up. He left Romulus and Remus (the 2 boys) to die on the bank of the Tiber river, but a mother wolf found them and saved them. When Romulus and Remus grew to be adults, they defeated their great-uncle and made their grandfather king again.They then left to build their own city. They fought over where to build the city. Remus was killed and Romulus founded Rome.
Who are the Etruscans?
People from northern Italy.
Define Republic.
A government with elected leaders
Define Consul.
An elected leader.
Define Dictator.
A ruler with complete authority
Define Senate.
An advising government body
Define Patricians.
Descendants of Rome's earliest settlers
Define Plebeians.
Soldiers, merchants, and craftworkers
Define tribune.
Special officials elected by Plebeians.
Define veto.
To reject.
What city-state did Rome develop a strong rivalry against?
What were the Punic Wars?
The set of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
Who is the famous leader from Carthage?
What did Hannibal do that made him famous?
He led his soldiers and war elephants over high, snow-covered mountains into Italy. His soldiers surprised the Romans. They nearly defeated Rome. A Roman general named Scipio attacked Carthage, forcing Hannibal t return and defend the town of Carthage.
What happened to Carthage after the third Punic war?
Carthage was left in ruins. The city was destroyed and many Carthaginians were sold into slavery.
What was Caesar's plan for Rome?
To rule all Roman lands.
In what year is Julius Caesar elected for consul?
59 BC
In what year is Julius Caesar appointed dictator for life?
44 BC
What were some of Caesar's greatest achievements?
Correcting the Roman calendar, and conquering Gaul
How is Caesar killed?
He is stabbed to death by a group of senators.
What happens to Caesar's government after he dies?
It falls apart, and a Civil War breaks out.
Who is Octavian? What is he later known as?
Octavian is Caesar's grandnephew. He is later known as Augustus.
Who is Mark Antony?
A Roman general.
Who is Cleopatra?
An Egyptian queen.
What is the importance of the Pax Romana?
The Pax Romana is a Roman peace. It lasts for about 200 years and brings peace to the empire.
What is the importance of a census?
It is a count of a country's people. It is used to make sure everyone pays their taxes.
What is a legion?
A large army group.
What is a basilica?
A large marble government building
What is a gladiator?
Slaves and prisoners who are forced to fight, often to the death.
What is an aqueduct?
A system of bridges and canals to transport water from place to place.
What is the Aeneid?
A story about a Trojan who is named Aeneas. He escapes the Greek attack on Troy, and his descendants, Romulus and Remus, founded Rome.
How was the Roman language influenced by the Greeks?
The Romans spoke Latin, which came from an Etruscan language. The Etruscan languages came from Greek.
Why did the Romans want everyone to respect the Roman gods?
They feared harm would come to the country if they didn't.
How did Jesus spread his teachings?
By teaching parables.
What is a parable?
A story that teaches a religious idea.
Why was the new religion of Christianity challenging to the Romans?
They worried that the gods would punish them if they didn't worship the gods.
How did the Roman persecutions affect the Christians?
It made them more determined to hold onto their beliefs.
Define crucifixion.
A punishment where the accused is nailed to a cross and left to die.
How did the teachings of Jesus continue to spread after his crucifixion?
His disciples spread his ideas.
What is a disciple?
A follower
Define messiah.
The messiah is a belief in Judaism. The messiah is one that will come to bring justice to the world.
How did the support of Roman emperors affect the Christians?
It allowed Christianity to spread wider.
What is the Greek word for "messiah"?
What does Jesus come to be known as?
Jesus Christ. Christ coming from the word "cristos" which means "messiah" in Greek.
Who were the first to spread the teachings of Jesus after he died?
The apostles, a group of 12 that had been Jesus' closest followers.
What eventually happens to the Pax Romana?
It ends.
Why did the Romans call the invaders barbarians?
Because to the Romans, their speech sounded like "bar bar"
How did the Persians contribute to the problems Romans faced in the 200's?
They attacked Roman territory in Asia.
How did the Berbers contribute to the problems Romans faced in the 200's?
They raided Roman lands in North Africa.
How did the emperors contribute to the problems Romans faced in the 200's?
They ruled extremely poorly.
How did the citizens contribute to the problems Romans faced in the 200's?
They lost respect for their emperors.
How did the soldiers contribute to the problems Romans faced in the 200's?
They showed respect to their generals, not the emperors.
How did the economy contribute to the problems Romans faced in the 200's?
The economy fell apart. Roman currency lost value. It became worth practically nothing.
How did trade contribute to the problems Romans faced in the 200's?
The money value of objects declined.
What eventually happens to the Roman Empire during Diocletian's rule?
It splits in 2.
What was the significance of the emperor, Diocletian?
He splits the empire in 2, putting a trusted friend in charge of the other half of the empire.
What was the significance of the Roman emperor, Constantine?
He converted to Christianity, kept the Roman empire alive, and moved the capital to a city named Constaninople in his honor.
When does the empire officially split in two?
In AD 395.
What happens to the empire in the 300s and 400s?
The Romans faced many more Germanic attacks.
List the names of 3 of the barbarians invading the Roman empire in the 300s and 400s.
Visigoths, Vandals, Goths, Angles, Franks, Huns, Saxons
What happens in AD 476?
Germanic Chief named Odoacer overthrows emperor of western part of the empire.
By AD 500 what happens to the western part of the Roman empire?
It had separated into several different kingdoms.

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