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Western Civ Midterm- chapter 6


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Who was Horatius?
He single-handedly saved Rome from an invading Etruscan army. It is more legendary than factual.
Where is Rome located?
in the middle of Italy
Which was easier to unify, Italy or Greece. why?
Italy was much easier to unify. It wasn't broken up into small isolated islands and vallyes like Greece. Also, the mountains were less ruged.
Who were the Roman anscestors?
the Latins
How did the city of Rome begin?
the Latins settled along the Tiber river in small villages. They herded and farmed. Eventually, a city arose.
What group of people taught the Romans a lot of things?
the Etruscans
What marked the foudning of the Roman state?
when the Romans drove out the Etruscan king
What was the new form of government created by the Romans?
the repubic
What does the word "republic" mean?
thing of the people
Who could be members of the senate?
the patricians
What are Patricians?
members of the landholding upper class
Each year, the Senate elected 2 _____. What are _____ ?
consuls. their job was to supervise the business of government and command armies
What would the Senate choose in the event of war?
a dictator
Who was a model dictator of Rome?
What is a censor?
kept records of citizens or census
Where were the 12 tablets set up in?
the forum
What did the 12 Tablets make possible for the Plebians?
they could appeal a judgement.
What were the officials elected by Plebians called?
What special right did the Tribunes have?
they could veto a law
What right were the Plebians ultimately offered?
they could servein the senate
What is a legion?
the basic unit of citizen-soldiers
How were the conquered war-prisoners treated in Rome?
usually with justice. they had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers. They could keep their own customs, money, and local gov. Some could gain full citizenship and marry Romans.
What was the war called that was fought between Rome and Carthage?
the Punic Wars
Who won the First Punic war?
Who was Hannibal?
an enemy of Rome. He was leader of the Chrthaginian army.
Who was winning in the Second Punic War? Who ultimately won?
Carthage, but they were never able to capture Rome itself. In the end, they were defeated.
What were the peace terms ending the Punic wars?
carthage gave up all its land, except for Africa. It also had to pay huge tribute (tax). Romans were masters of the western Mediterranean.
How did Hannibal die?
Romans came to get him. They thought he was plotting against him. When they found Hannibal, he was dead. He drank a deadly poison.
Did the fighting end after the peace terms of the Punic War?
no, Rome could not forgive them. They destroyed the whole city and poured salt over it so nothing could grow again.
What is Mare Nostrum?
What Romans called the Mediterranean sea. It means "our sea".
What are latfundia?
huge Roman estates worked by slaves cpatured in war.
What did the use of slave labor do to Rome?
the farmers went into debt. The slaves caused the grain prices to drop because they could produce it rapidly. The gap between the rich and the poor began to widen ****
Who were Tiberius and Gais Gracchus?
they attempted reform. They tried to help the poor and the farmers out, but were killed in waves of violence.
What set of the series of civil wars in Rome?
the murder of the Gracchus brothers
Who was Ceaser?
an able general who conquered Gaul. Corssing the Rubicon. He made many reforms and introduced a new calendar. He was killed on "the Ides of March".
Who said "Veni, vidi vici"?
What did Ceaser do to help gain support?
he packed the senate with his own followers
After Ceaser's death, which two men struggled for power and who won?
Octavian and Mark Antony. Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra.
What was Octavian named?
Augustus (exalted one) princeps (first citizen)
what age begun when Octavian gained power?
the age of the Roman Empire
Who were the 2 bad emperors and what did they do?
Caligula- appointed his horse consul
Nero- burned the city down and persecuted Christians
Who were the good emperors and what did they do?
Marcus Aurelius- philosopher
Hadrian- built a wall on the border and codified Roman law
What was the Age that started with Aurelius?
Pax Romana or "roman peace". it was a time of prosperity and peace
Name the Roman gods:
1. Jupiter
2. Juno
3. Neptune
4. Mars
What was the cult of Isis?
a "small" religion which promised life after death and offered women equal status. they could become a priest in a cult.
What were Bread and Circuses?
they gave out free bread to the poor and offered entertainment at the Circus Maximus.
What 2 events happened at the Circus Maximus?
Gladiator contests and chariot races
What is the blending of Greek, Roman, and Hellenistic civilization called?
What was art like in Rome?
very idealistic (perfect positions). statues and coins.
What was Roman architecture like?
Grandeur- greek columns. Arch/dome/palaces. Pantheon!
What aspect of engineering did the Romans thrive at?
their roads were built solidly. They also build aqueducts.
What are aqueducts?
bridgelike stone structures that carried water along a stone cahnnel supported by arches. it made fresh water readily available to Romans.
What did Ptolemy suggest?
the earth was the center of the universe
Who was Pliny the Elder?
he gathered and collected knowledge into encyclopedias.
Who wrote the Aeneid?
Who was Livy
a historian who wanted to rouse patriotic feeling and restore traditional heroic past.
Who was a supporter of Stoicism?
marcus aurelius
What were the two systems of law in Rome?
1. Civil law- applied to its citizens.
2. Law of Nations- applied to every one under Roman rule, citizen or not.
What new religion sprang up in the Pax Romana?
Who are Zealots?
Jews who wanted other Jews to revolt against Rome and reestablish and independent Israel.
What is a Messiah and what did the Jews believe "he" would do?
the messiah is a savior sent by god. "he" would lead the Jewish people to freedom
What was it called when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the Jews fled?
What is Jewish law?
the talmud
Who was the founder of Christianity?
a Jew named Jesus
What are disciples?
Jesus' loyal followers
Why did so many people support Jesus?
he said he would bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who believe in him.
What are the disciples who spread Jesus' message called?
What are gentiles?
What did Paul do?
he tried to spread Christianity. He set of churches all over.
What did Roman officials think about Christianity?
they suspected Christians of disloyalty to Rome because they refused to make sacrifices to the emperor or to honor the Roman gods.
What did Nero do to the Christians?
he used them as scapegoats
what are maytyrs?
people who suffer or die for their beliefs
Who, specifically, were major supporters of the Christian religion?
What is a Bishop?
priests were under the authority of the bishop. they were responsible for all christians in an area.
What are archbishops?
higher than bishops- in a city.
Who was Peter
Bishops traced their spiritual authority to him. He was the chief disciple of Jesus.
What did the Edict of Milan say, who issued it, and what did it solve?
Constantine issued it to end persecution of the Christians. It granted freedom of worship to all citizens.
What happened after the Pax Romana ended?
it was bad
Who was Diocletian?
he was an emporer who set out to restore order. He divided it into 2 parts.
Who was Constantine?
he issued the edict of milan and built a capital, constantinople.
Did the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine help?
they helped, but not in the long run.
Who were the Huns?
a nomadic people who migrated east because of war in their country. They killed all Germanic people in their path.
Who were the Visigoths?
They were targets of the huns. they came into rome, seeking safety.
Who was named "the scourge of god"
atilla- the hun leader. they believed his attacks were punishment from god.
Why did Rome fall?
-corrupt gov.
-economic suffering (taxes, farmers)
-social decline
What are mercenaries?
foreign soldiers serving for pay, to defend its borders.

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