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Jacksonian Democracy and the Mexican War (1824-1850)


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General ___________ defeated the British at Lake Eerie, allowing General William Harrison to go north into Canada and win the Battle of the Thames in the War of 1812.
Oliver Perry. General Oliver Perry built a fleet on Lake Eerie.
Fort ________ resisted British bombardment in the War of 1812, inspiring Francis Scott Key to write the "Star Spangled Banner."
McHenry. After the British set fire to Washington DC, they attacked Fort McHenry at Baltimore, MD.
In the war of 1812, the British landed on the coast of Maryland, setting fire to the public buildings of ________________.
Washington DC. They set fire to the public buildings in Washington DC, including the Executive Mansion. The Executive Mansion was then repainted white and became the White House.
Andrew Jackson fought the British and won at the Battle of ____________ two weeks after a peace treaty had been signed for the War of 1812.
New Orleans. Andrew Jackson fought a much larger force of British at the Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson was a famous general in the war of 1812 who later became President. He was not the same general as "Stonewall" Jackson who fought on the Confederate side in the Civil War.
The Treaty of ____________ in 1814 ended the War of 1812.
Ghent. The Treaty of Ghent, signed in Ghent, Belgium, ended the War of 1812. All land won in this war was restored to the pre-war owners.
The first protective tariff in US History was passed in the year _________.
1816. It was passed in 1816 due to the flood of cheap British products entering the country.
The _________ Treaty was an agreement between England and the US not to have armed fleets on the Great Lakes, and is still in effect.
Rush-Bagot. The Rush-Bagot Treaty led to the removal of British and American fleets from the Great Lakes after the War of 1812.
In 1817, __________ led an army into Spanish-controlled Florida and occupied Pensacola, violating international law.
Andrew Jackson. Andrew Jackson led an army into Florida, and hung two British men he suspected of selling arms to the Indians.
In the _____________ Treaty signed in 1819, the US got control of Spanish Florida in return for $5 million.
Adam-Onis. The Adam-Onis Treaty stated that the Spanish surrendered their claims to Florida in return for $5 million from the US government.
The _________ Doctrine stated that North and South America were no longer open to colonization by European countries.
Monroe. President Monroe made an announcement known as the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, which in a sense was the United State's declaration of economic independence.
Marbury vs _________ established the Supreme Court's power to rule on the constitutionality of laws.
Madison. Marbury vs Madison, in 1803, was ruled by the first Supreme Court Justice John Marshall.
Fletcher vs __________ was the first time a state law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Peck. Fletcher vs Peck was declared unconstitutional in 1810.
_________ College vs Woodward limited the power of state governments to control corporations.
Dartmouth. Dartmouth College vs Woodward was a ruling in 1819 which limited the state government's power over private business.
Several rulings made by Chief Justice ____________ weakened state powers through cases such as McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden.
John Marshall. Chief Justice John Marshall first established the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws enacted by Congress, and then showed the power of federal courts to rule on the actions of individual states as well. For example, in Gibbons v. Ogden, he prevented New York from regulating interstate commerce.
McCulloch vs __________ established that the state does not have the power to control a federal agency.
Maryland. McCulloch vs Maryland was a ruling by John Marshall in 1819.
______________ vs Ogden was a ruling by John Marshall that only Congress has the right to control commerce between states.
Gibbons. Gibbons vs Ogden in 1824 was in response to a monopoly which New York had granted to Ogden to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey.
The __________ Compromise, worked out by Speaker of the House Henry Clay, brought Missouri and Maine into the Union as states.
Missouri. The Missouri Compromise brought Missouri in as a slave state, and Maine as a free state. Also, it divided the Louisiana Purchase with a line--slavery would be prohibited in states which came in from above that line.
The first state to be formed from the Louisiana Territory was ____________.
Missouri. The Missouri Territory applied for statehood in 1819, and resulted in the Missouri Compromise.
_____________ made the first steamboat in 1807.
Robert Fulton. Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, was built in 1807.
The _________ Road, which connected Cumberland, Maryland, and Wheeling, Virginia, linking the Potomac and Ohio Rivers, was built in 1818.
National. The National Road was financed by the federal government.
The __________ Canal connected the Hudson River with Lake Erie, and was the first canal built in the United States.
Erie. The Erie Canal was built in 1825.
By 1830, ________ was the US's largest city.
New York City. New York City was a large center for trade and business and dominated the domestic cotton market.
__________ built the first textile mill in the US based on plans he memorized from English designs.
Samuel Slater. Samuel Slater built the first textile mill--this was a big step in the rise of factories in the US.
___________ developed not only the cotton gin, but the principle of interchangeable parts, which is used in mass-production.
Eli Whitney. Eli Whitney's invention of interchangeable parts was first applied towards mass-producing rifles.
In 1828, the first organized _________ occurred in New Jersey.
Strike. Child workers started the first organized strike in the US in 1828.
The Missouri Compromise brought Missouri into the Union as a ________ state.
Slave. Missouri came in as a slave state, and Maine entered as a free state. Also, under the Missouri Compromise, slavery was prohibited in states north of the 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude line, with the exception of Missouri. This Compromise was later repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The best known native writer in the United States in the early 1800's was ______________.
Washington Irving. Washington Irving, who wrote stories such as Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle, was the best known American author. At that point, people mostly read books imported from Europe.
In 1805, History of the Revolution was published by ___________.
Mercy Otis Warren. Mercy Otis Warren published a multi-volume book, the History of the Revolution.
The __________ began in 1801 in Kentucky in a religious "camp meeting."
Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening began in 1801, and led to a religious revival in the United States. The First Great Awakening was a series of religious revivals which occurred between 1720-1740.
John Calhoun, John Quicky Adams' vice president, anonymously published _____________ Exposition and Protest.
South Carolina. John Calhoun, in opposition to what was known as the "Tariff of Abominations, "anonymously published South Carolina Exposition and Protest," stating his theory that states could ignore laws they considered unconstitutional.
The Democratic Party first appeared in 1828, when John Quincy Adams was running against __________ for president.
Andrew Jackson. John Quincy Adams was running as a National Republican, and Andrew Jackson was running as a Democratic Republican, which later became the Democratic Party.
President _________ relied on his "Kitchen Cabinet" instead of his appointed cabinet officials.
Andrew Jackson. President Andrew Jackson relied on his Kitchen Cabinet, which were a group of supporters he trusted and listened to.
The ________ system was President Andrew Jackson's belief that government offices should go to faithful supporters
Spoils. Andrew Jackson believed that "common" people could fill government positions, and as a result, he had the idea that he could replace most government employees with his supporters. This was known as the spoils system.
________ was the first president to use his veto power extensively.
Andrew Jackson. Andrew Jackson used his veto power more than any previous president. An example is the Maysville Road, which Jackson vetoed on the grounds that it required federal funds, but would only exist in one state.
The _________ Act was passed in 1830 under President Jackson and called for federal enforcement of the removal of all Indian tribes to the west of the Mississippi.
Indian removal. This was known as the Indian Removal Act.
The _________ was where the US Government forced thousands of Cherokees to march west, many of them dying in the process.
Trail of Tears. This forced march is known as the Trail of Tears. Under President Jackson, the Cherokees were forced to move, despite the decision upheld by the Supreme Court stating that the Cherokees were a sovereign political entity within Georgia.
In 1830, there was a debate between Senator ________, and Daniel Webster. The Senator spoke of South Carolina's right to nullification.
Hayne. Senator Hayne spoke of the possibility of nullification, which is the idea that a state can nullify, or ignore federal laws which it considers unconstitutional.
Andrew Jackson's vice president, __________, resigned after Jackson supported the Tariff of 1832.
John Calhoun. John Calhoun, who had also been John Quincy Adams' Vice President, resigned his office when Jackson supported the new tariff. He then came up with the Ordinance of Nullification, in which South Carolina ignored the tariff
President ________ resulted in the downfall of the Bank of the United States.
Andrew Jackson. President Andrew Jackson achieved this by withdrawing government deposits from the Bank, and then letting its charter expire in 1846.
President Jackson's successor, Van Buren, resulted in the establishment of the ____________ to handle government funds.
Treasury. President Van Buren spent his entire term attempting to deal with the financial turmoil which resulted from the destruction of the Bank of the United States. He convinced Congress to establish an independent Treasury to handle government money.
With the development of the ____________, traffic on western rivers, especially the Mississippi River, increased dramatically.
Steamboats were of particular value on the western rivers, where previously, traffic went downstream with the current. This new, efficient transportation resulted in new communities and economies developing along the Mississippi River.
___________ became popular because the transportation they provided was so cheap.
Canals. Canals were popular because a huge barge could be towed along the canal by a single horse or mule. They were not as fast as the railroads, but they were significantly cheaper. The most famous canal, the Erie Canal, reached its peak traffic in 1880, long after railroads spanned the Northeastern United States.
President ____________ served the shortest term of any president in US history.
William Harrison. President William Harrison caught pneumonia and died one month after becoming president.
Out of the political parties, the ___________ were against a large federal government, and appealed to the small farmers and working class.
Democrats. The Democrats' primary supporters were small farmers and working class people.
The __________, which was the political party of President Harrison, received most of their support from big business, and wealthy plantation owners.
Whigs. The Whigs were a political party who appealed to the business and industry in the Northeast, and large Southern planters. Their policies were heavy government involvement in promoting commercial and industrial growth, and a cautious approach to Western expansion.
Reform movement were big in the nineteenth century. These movements were mostly centered in the Northeastern portion of the country, especially __________.
New England. New England could be considered the center of many of the reform movements occurring in the nineteenth century.
The Enlightenment movement emphasized rationalism, and was a big movement in the 18th century _____________, which emphasized emotions over rationalism, was a major movement.
Romanticism. Romanticism went against many of the beliefs of Enlightenment.
The Free Soil Party, Liberty Party, and the Republican Party all opposed _________.
Slavery. All three parties opposed slavery, or more specifically, the expansion of slavery into new territories.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and David Thoreau were among the most famous advocates of the ___________ movement in the 1830's and 1840's.
Transcendentalist. The Transcendentalist movement was a religious movement which believed in attaining unity with God without the church.
The ___________ movement was in response to the rise of impersonal industrialism. It involved trying to form the perfect community in social, political, and moral aspects.
Utopian. This was known as the Utopian movement. A utopia is an ideally perfect place in politics, laws, and the moral aspects.
The ____________ were the most successful of the efforts in the 19th century to establish a separate community which was perfect.
Mormons. The Mormons established Salt Lake City after being driven out of Illinois. Their practice of polygamy was one of the biggest things which made them unpopular with their neighbors.
____________ organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, also known as the Mormons.
Joseph Smith. Joseph Smith organized the Mormon Church. He was later killed by a mob in Illinois, and a man named Brigham Young led the group to settle in Utah.
___________ began a crusade for the improvement of conditions for the mentally ill.
Dorothea Dix. Dorothea Dix single-handedly fought for better conditions for the mentally ill.
The true beginning of the modern feminist movement was with the meeting in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, where the Declaration of ____________ was made.
Sentiments and Resolutions. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the major activists in the women's right movement, along with others, resulted in the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions. This document demanded equal rights for women.
William Lloyd Garrison published a paper called __________. This paper was devoted to the abolition of slavery.
The Liberator. He wrote a paper called The Liberator.
One of the most influential books for the anti-slavery movement was Harriet Beecher Stowe's ____________.
Uncle Tom's Cabin. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a book called Uncle Tom's Cabin.
The fastest growing area of the United States in the 1800's was the ________.
West. The West was growing rapidly, reaching a population of 32 million in 1860.
Over __________ free blacks lived in the US by 1850.
200,000. There were over 200,000 free blacks by 1850. They usually established their own churches and organizations due to the restrictions of prejudice and "Jim Crow" laws.
The ________ portion of the US produced most of the manufactured goods, and led the way in industrial growth.
Northeastern. The Northeastern portion of the US was where most of the factories were located, and produced over two-thirds of the manufactured goods.
By 1860, two-thirds of the value of US exports was made up by ___________, grown in the South.
Cotton. Cotton made up two-thirds of the value of US exports.
____________ was the belief that eventually the United States would stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
Manifest destiny. This was known as "Manifest Destiny."
______________ was the idea that America should spread from the East Coast all the way to the West Coast, and motivated Western expansion.
Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was a spirit of superiority and American pride; it involved a belief that Americans were superior to the Native Americans occupying the land, and the need to spread American democracy and culture.
In 1836, what was known as the ________ rule was passed in the House of Representatives, forbidding discussion of slavery in the House.
Gag. Due to the rising tension between the North and the South over the issue of slavery, Southern representatives came up with the "gag" rule.
_________ was originally a part of Mexico, but established itself as an independent republic after Sam Houston defeated Mexican dictator Santa Anna.
Texas. Texas was a part of Mexico, but eventually there were more Americans living there than Mexicans. The Texans fought for their independence and established their own republic.
The one member of the cabinet who did not resign immediately after President Tyler vetoed a number of Whig-sponsored bills was __________.
Daniel Webster. Daniel Webster was Secretary of State, and stayed around long enough to finish his Webster-Ashburton Treaty with England. He also resigned after negotiating the treaty.
The first serious impeachment attempt on a President was made while President ______ was in office.
Tyler. John Tyler, who became President after William Harrison died, was in opposition to all of the Whig Party's major ideas, vetoing many Whig-sponsored bills. He was expelled from the Whig Party and the Whigs tried to impeach him.
President John Tyler managed to get _______ admitted into the Union right before he left office.
Texas. Texas had gained independence from Mexico in 1836, but the United States refused to make it a state because of the issue of slavery. President Tyler finally got Texas admitted in 1845.
Before 1846, _______ was shared by Britain and the United States. Americans wanted all of this state, and President Polk's stance on this issue helped win him the presidency.
Oregon. Oregon was shared by Britain and the US. President Polk endorsed the Oregon Treaty which extended the US boundary to the Pacific Ocean and established a portion of Oregon as belonging to the United States.
Under the leadership of _________, the Mormons left Illinois and settled in Utah, which was then a part of Mexico.
Brigham Young. Brigham Young led the Mormons from Illinois after Joseph Smith was killed. He then established the Mormon Republic of Deseret.
One of the major causes of the Mexican War was the dispute over the southern boundary of ___________.
Texas. The US claimed the Rio Grande River as the southern boundary of Texas, while Mexico claimed it was 130 miles north of the Rio Grande. The fact that the US had admitted Texas into the Union also angered Mexico.
As a result of the _____________, the dream of Manifest Destiny was fulfilled--the United States gained ports on the Pacific Coast.
Mexican. As a result of the Mexican War, the U.S. controlled all three of the major west-coast natural harbors. Texas had already been annexed by the United States before the Mexican War ever occurred, but the U.S. gained all of the land stretching from New Mexico to California through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Under President _______, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Polk. President Polk asked Congress to declare war on Mexico after a conflict between Mexican and American troops in Texas.
General ____________ led the largest force of American soldiers into Mexico during the Mexican War.
Zachary Taylor. General Zachary Taylor led an army into Mexico, winning several major battles against much larger Mexican forces.
The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ended the _________ War.
Mexican. The Mexican War was ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. This resulted in Mexico giving the "Mexican Cession" to the US, which included what is now the Southwestern US.
General ___________ landed on Mexico's east coast, and captured Mexico City.
Winfield Scott. General Winfield Scott was ordered by President Polk to take Mexico City in an attempt to force Mexico to negotiate a treaty.

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