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Euro History Exam


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In 1066, King William made it so that everyone worked below him.
main idea:its better to be feared than loved
Was the first humanist
da Vinci
great painter along with engineer and scientist
an intellectual movement in Renaissance Italy based upon Greek and Roman classics. Idea that every man searches for morality or meaning in his life
sculptor during Renaissance
“School of Athens”, which reveals a world of balance, harmony, and order- all underlying principals of art of the Greeks and Romans.
De’ Medici
family that kicked Machiavelli out of power. In the family’s best days, 15th century, the family was the greatest banking house in all of Europe. Due to poor leadership and a sharp decline the Medici bank, the family lost power in 1494.
played an important role in bringing the printing type to completion. The Gutenberg bible, completed in 1455 or 1456, was the first real book produced from “movable type”
War of the Roses
battle of power against the Lancaster family and the York family, broke out in the 1450s. Henry Tudor ended the war in 1485
Hundred Years War
conflicts between 1337- 1453 between England and France. Important because it introduced new war tactics, introduce the idea of the standing army, and have English and French stronger identity and loyalty. Defined French and English boundaries.
Avignon Papacy
1309-1337 when all seven popes lived in Avignon, important turning point in the church’s attempt to adapt itself to changing conditions in Europe. The popes were looked down upon!!
Battle of Agincourt
October, 25, 1415, part of the hundred years war. This was the battle that Henry IV fought, when the English reintroduced the long bow, which was why the won. Also, the English had too heavy armor.
The Great Schism
the East-West Schism, known also as the Great Schism, was the event that divided Christianity into Catholicism and Greek-Byzantine Eastern Orthodoxy. The primary causes of the Schism were disputes over papal authority—the Pope claimed he held authority over the four Eastern Greek-speaking patriarchs
Three Estates
Feudal society was traditionally divided into three "estates" (social classes).
First Estate
Church (clergy = those who prayed).
Second Estate
was the Nobility (those who fought = knights). It was common for aristocrats to enter the Church and thus shift from the second to the first estate
Third Estate
Peasantry (everyone else, at least under feudalism: those who produced the food which supported those who prayed and those who fought, the members of the First and Second Estates). Note that these "estates" are defined primarily by what one does (as well as by the social class one is born into).
took place in 14th- 15th century Italy, is the rebirth or revival of classical ideas. Beginning of the modern age.
(1466-1536) Dutch Christian Humanist who criticized the Catholic Church but wanted reform within the Church and not a schism. Catholics therefore saw him as a heretic and Protestants saw him as a halfhearted reformer. The main purpose of his lifework was to instruct, to advance learning, and to advance the Christian religion.
Martin Luther
1483–1546) A German monk, priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. His teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions, as well as the course of Western civilization. He wrote the 95 Theses against the misuse of absolution or indulgences.
St. Augustine
one of the great fathers of the early Christian church; after a dramatic conversion to Christianity he became bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa; St. Augustine emphasized man's need for grace
John Calvin
A French scholar who became a leading preacher and dominant force in the Reformation of the 16th Century. He became dissatisfied with the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and allied himself with the cause of the Protestant Reformation in 1532.When the king of France decided to settle the religious question in his country in favor of the Catholics, Calvin fled to Geneva, Switzerland, where his writings and lectures made Geneva the Rome of Protestantism. His institutes of the Christian religion became the basis for the Presbyterian way of thought and church life. Calvinism is the main doctrine of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches.
Leo X
(1475 –1521) born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 1513 to his death. He is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther. He was the first to accuse the Roman Catholic Church of corruption.
remission of the temporal punishment due to God for sin.
Acceptance of ideals, beliefs, etc., which are not necessarily demonstrable through experimentation or reason.
Henry VIII
famous for having been married six times, "divorcing" two by execution, and ultimately breaking with Rome and starting the church of England
John Knox
1514–1572) A Scottish religious reformer who took the lead in reforming the Church in Scotland along Calvinist lines. He is widely regarded as the father of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland
(1511–1553), A theologian, physician and humanist
Johann Tetzel
best known for being accused of selling indulgences during the 16th century. In 1517, Tetzel was trying to raise money for the ongoing construction of St. Peter's Basilica and it is believed that Martin Luther was inspired to write his 95 Theses, in part, due to Tetzel's actions during this period.
Anyone could be accused of heresy because the identity of the accuser was not revealed to the indicted heretic. If the accused heretic confessed, he or she was forced to perform public penance and was subjected to punishment, such as flogging. The underlying rationale of the Inquisition was that if possible, save the heretic’s soul. If not, stop the heretic from endangering the souls of others.
Paul III
- (1534-1549) proved to be a turning point in the reform of the papacy. He continued the renaissance papal practiced by appointing his nephews as cardinals, involving himself in politics, and patronizing arts and letters on a lavish scale. He perceived the need for change and expressed it decisively.
Society of Jesus
known as the Jesuits, who became the chief instrument of the Catholic Reformation. The society was founded by a Spanish Nobleman, Ignatius of Loyola. Grounded on the principles of absolute obedience to the papacy, a strict hierarchical order for the society, the use of education to achieve its goals, and a dedication to engage in “conflict for God.” The organization resembled a military.
Ignatius Loyola
- (1491-156) Founded the Society of Jesus. His injuries in battle cut short his career. Unable to be a real soldier, he vowed to be a soldier of God.
Marco Polo
(1254 –1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father and his uncle, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China visited the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, Kublai Khan. His travels are written down in Il Milione ("The Million" or The Travels of Marco Polo).
(1450-1500) Portuguese explorer who in 1488 discovered a way to get around the Cape of Good Hope.
De Gama
Portuguese navigator who led an expedition around the Cape of Good Hope in 1497 to find the 1rst water route to India.
sailed in 1492 from Spain. He discovered the Caribbean.
(1480-1521) Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain; he commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world.
Thirty Years War
a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. It occurred for a number of reasons. Although it was from its outset a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics, the self-preservation of the Habsburg dynasty was also a central motive.
Spanish Armada
Philip’s (from Spain) attempt to restore Catholicism. He took it upon himself to be the promoter of Catholicism in Europe.
malicious figures by Christian propaganda; were alleged to reject Jesus and the sacraments
the sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king
French prelate and statesman; principal minister to Louis XII.
Louis XIV
marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles.
served as the chief minister of France from 1642, until his death.
an economic theory that held that a nation’s prosperity depended on its supply of gold. Nations would ship their gold to the mother country. Or they would ship something else that was valuable. They mother country turns it into a finished product and sells it for money. The goal of mercantilism was to make the mother country rich and powerful.

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