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Early Civilizations exam 2


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Greece during the dark ages
The times were primative. Linear B went out of use. Dark ages were very violent. Much of what we know comes from Homers books. 400 years later the greek alphabet was created.
The rise of the Greek polis
polis means "Greek city state". Each city was independant and ruled by kings. Rise of the polis as the return of prosperity. Revival of trade. Population grew and colonies were created in other lands. Adopted the Cananites alphabet (all alphabets in the world come from this one). Begining of literature.
The organization of Sparta
It was a military state. Had 2 classes of people: the Citizens and Helots. Citizens were decendants of the conquerers (dorians). Helots were decendants of the natives. Citizens were soldiers
Sparta's foreign relations
Realized causes of most war was trade. They stayed away from foreign trade.
The Persian war
Started because the Persians took over greek settlements in Asia minor.Persians understood that conquering Greece would not work, but they wanted to weaken their power. Uknwown victor.
The Peloponnesian war
Was cause by the Persian war. Greeks cities were still afraid of a Persian invasion so they formed the Delian league. Cities had to pay to be members of the alliance. After a time the Persians never attacked so some cities wanted to leave the league. Athens wouldnt let them stop paying and leave. Sparta started the Peloponnesian League for cities that wanted out of the Delian league. Both leagues fought over certain cities which led to a war. Sparta was the victor but it and Athens were so weak that Thebes became the most powerful city in Greece
The characteristics of Athenian life
Government was a monarchy. Rich businessmen were powerful. Golden age of Greece had a form of Democracy. Called the classical age. A counsel brought up issues in an assembly and citizens voted.
Plato's political philosophy
Plato was antidemocratic. Said the Peloponnesian war was caused by bad democracy. He wrote a book called the Republic. Said Greece should be run by Kings that do not greatly prophit from the job but are extremely intellectual. They pick their predecessors so the chain keeps going and remaining strong.
The socratic method
He felt that everyone that thought they knew everything knew nothing at all. Questioned everyones knowledge and proved them wrong. He went around creating true meanings for words. He examined ethics rather than studying the physical world.
Aristotles method
Believed in Polis. Thought that such a government would allow free men to relize their potential and make clear tha they belong above animals but below gods.
Father of history. Created the word history. Investigated the Persian war and told stories of its battles.
The legacy of ancient Greece
Invented all ways of thinking and acting. Also works of literature and art.
Followed the conquest of Alexander the Great. People were attracted to the Greek culture but were not Greek. They lived Greek lifestyles in all areas of the world.
Considered the founder of the Persian empire. He conquered Babylon, Syria, Palastine, the Nile Valley, and Egypt. Freed the Jews.
Zoroaster was a prophit from Persia. Zorism was the word of god. Was monotheistic and had no known start. One good god in the world was called "Ahura -Mazda". Evil was called Angra-Maynus
Philip of Macedon
Father of Alexander the Great. Conquered all of Greece with his brilliant styles of warfare. He was assassinated.
Alexander the Great
Alexander thought of himself like Achilles. His mother was a sorceress who encouraged Alexander greatly. He conquered the Persian empire. He was made the pharaoh of Egypt.
The successors of Alexander
Seleucus was made ruler of Persian area. Antigonus ruled Macedonia and was defeated by the Romans. Ptolomy was ruler in Egypt.
The Cynics
Philosophy: The Cynics questioned everything. Said there is no truth at all. Rejected government, economic activities.
The Stoics
Philosophy: The Stoics said you should accept what you cant change. And you will be happy once you accept this. They said there are alot of things that are out of human control.
The Empicurians
Philosophy: The Empicurians said you should do what you like to do and avoid things you dont like. Said you should stay away from politics.
The Roman Republic
The people of Rome who spoke Latin were thought of as the ancient Romans. Italics were the most numerous people. There are no written records about the begining of Rome. The Latins overthrew the King and created a Republic. Within it was a senate.
Early Roman society
Society consisted of 2 social classes: Patricians (fathers) and the Plebeians (commoners). The Patricians discriminated against the Plebeians.
The Punic wars
A war between Rome and Carthage. Rome was victorious after many years of brutal fighting. Carthage was forced to pay heavy debts. The second Punic war started when Carthage started settling in Spain. Rome declared war again. The famous Hannibal brought troops with elephants over the Andes and into Rome. Rome barely won the battle and again Carthage was forced to pay huge debts. The 3rd Punic war ended with Rome burning all of Carthage to the ground, and taking over the lands.
Julius Ceaser
Teamed up with Pompey to gain control of the government. After gaining power the two became enemies. Ceasers forces defeated Pompey's. He got any power he wanted from the senate. He was so powerful that people feared he would become King. So he was assasinated in the hopes that Rome would retain its Republic
Rome in the 1st century BCE
It was the end of the Republic and begining of the Autocratic State.
The Roman Principate
There were many intellectual and artistic achievments. Women gained power. The Pantheon was built. The Aquaducts were built. Marcus Aurelius was an Emporor and philosopher.
The Roman Empire in the 3rd century
Period of great confusion. Marcus Aurelius died and appointed his son Commodus emperor. Commodus was extremely brutal and was assasinated. Because of the lack of a successor, a civil war broke out. Rome was split into East and West.
The decline of the Roman Empire
The people got lead poisoning was a major reason for deaths. Government problems left the city weak. The citys rellied on slaves which became scarce. Plagues sharply reduced population so there were little men to fight or work on farms. Germanic tribes invaded when Rome was weak from the inside.
The legacy of Rome
Romes architecture became famous all over the world. The laws of our courts come from Rome. The organization of the catholic church comes from old Roman religions.
Roman Emperor that ruled in the West. He set up a permanent capitol called Constantinople. Legalized Christianity.
The teachings of Jesus
The fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of all humanity. Urged love of God and neighbor. Started as a tribal religion. Taught self denial. Wealth was condemned and charity was expected. He said to forgive ones enemies.
The Apostle Paul
He was a Jewish Roman citizen who persecuted christians. Later he converted to christianity. He was a main founder and spreader of the religion.
Early Christian doctrinal disputes
The Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant churches fought over which was the correct form. These disagreements weekened the empire.
Some people took self denial very seriously. After the church was legalized these people lived in places called Monastaries (munks) and Covents (women). Saint Benedict was very strict on vows like not having possesions and obedience
The spread of Christianity
It offered the poor respect and a better life.
Christianity in the 4th century
Times were very hard so Christianity was very attractive. The Clergy grew. Desirable positions became popular and people compeated for them.
The Germanic invasions
Ostrogoths moved down into the Balkins. 100 years later they took over Rome. A German tribe called the Visigoths sacked Rome and took over Spain. Roman writings speak badly of them.
The Vulgate version of the bible
Latin version of the bible. Translated from Hebrew and Greek
Founder of the Byzatine. Had Roman law written called Corpus. Wanted to reconquer the empire from Constantinople. He built Santa Sophia which is the largest domed building in the world.
India under the Gupta dynasty
Covered North Indian plane. Had outstanding math and astronomy achievments. Hinduism was reborn and took its present shape. This was a period of great stability and prosperity
The spread of Indian culture
Spread to China, Japan, Mongolia, Korea, and the South East.Influences were both Hindu and Buhdist.
China after the Han dynasty
Fell into a state of political turbulance. The country was divided into numerous, warring states. Comparable to Europe after the fall of Rome. The absence of strong central authority was China's main disadvantage.
Buddhism in China
Buddhism was a main factor towards China's reunification. It was under the Tang dynasty that Buddhism reached its height.
Early Chinese influences on Japan
China's influence reached Japan by way of Korea. Japan adopted a system of writing called "Idiographs". Adopted the idea of an Emporer from China.
Government of Japan in the 7th century
Idea of Absolute Monarchy came from China. Had a strong reform program.
Cultural lag in sub-Saharan Africa
They were late in developing civilizations. There was an absence of indigenous plant and animal species. Meaning the native species were no good for food/production and plants were no good for crops. The presence of dangerous diseases made development difficult. Isolation was also a problem.
Agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa
Introduction of Asian food crops. Iron metal was introduced for forging and smelting. Population grew.
Civilization in sub-Saharan Africa
Niger-congo languages spread Bantu peole spoke it so they became the dominant group. Bantu people initiated an agricultural revolution. They laid the necessary foundations for new civilizations.
Early trading patterns in Africa
Use of the camel increased trade and allowed crossing of the Sahara. Salt was in high demand. Spread of Islam created a more unified culture in all of Africa and influenced trade.

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