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Microbiology - bacteria


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virulence factor of staph aureus - binds Fc-IgG, inhibiting complement fixation and phagocytosis
protein A
superantigen that binds to MHC II and TCR, resulting in polyclonal T cell activation
TSST - (staph aureus)
what makes coagulase?
staph aureus
antibody to what enhances host defenses against strep pyogenes?
M protein
group A beta-hemolytic strep?
strep pyogenes
what detects recent strep pyogenes infections?
ASO titer
associated with rusty sputum, sepsis in sickle cell, and splenectomy?
strep pneumo
most common cause of meningitis, otitis, pneumonia, sinusitis?
strep pneumo
what gives immunity to strep pneumo?
IgG antibodies to surface acidic polysaccharide
causes pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis mainly in babies
group B strep (agalactiae) - beta hemolytic, bacitracin resistant
what is Lancefield grouping based on?
differences in the C carbohydrate on the bacterial cell wall
what can grow in 6.5% NaCl
enterococci can cause what?
UTI, subacute endocarditis, biliary tract infections
bacteria related to colon cancer?
strep bovis
type of strep viridans that can cause subacute bacterial endocarditis?
strep sanguis
what does C. perfringens produce?
alpha toxin
gram-positive rods with metachromatic granules?
corynebacterium diphtheriae
woolsorter's disease?
bacillus anthracis
inhalation of anthrax spores?
flulike symptoms that rapidly progress to fever, pulmonary hemorrhage, and shock
gram-positive anaerobe that causes oral/facial abscesses that may drain through sinus tracks in skin
gram positive, weakly-acid fast aerobe that causes pulmonary infection in immunocomprimised patients
nocardia asteroides
sulfur granules
gram-positive rods forming long branching filaments resembling fungi
actinomyces & nocardia
most invasive disease of H. flu is caused by what capsular type?
treatment for H. flu meningitis?
treatment for neisseria gonorrhea?
ceftriaxone - also z pack or doxycycline because 50% will also be infected with chlamydia
why don't you want to culture if pt. has epiglottitis?
manipulation cause laryngeal spasm
members of enterobacter family (7)
e. coli, salmonella, shigella, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia, proteus
what antigen is related to the virulence of enterobacter?
K antigen
all of these ferment glucose and are oxidase negative
these bacteria grow pink colonies on MacConkey's agar
klebsiella, e. coli, enterobacter (KEE), citrobacter
salmonella or shigella: motile and can disseminate hematogenously?
salmonella or shigella: which is more virulent?
salmonella or shigella: symptoms may be prolonged with antibiotic treatments
salmonella or shigella: animal reservoir
this is usually transmitted from pet feces, contaminated milk, or pork; outbreaks common in daycare centers
yersinia enterocolitica
this can mimic Crohn's or appendicitis & can disseminate to produce lymphadenitis
yersinia enterocolitica
arthritis can develop with yersinia infection in patients with what?
vibrio parahaemolyticus and v. vulnificus
contaminated seafood
reheated rice
B. cereus
meats, mayonase, custard
s. aureus
reheated meat dishes
c. perfringens
undercooked meat
e. coli 0157:H7
poultry, meat, eggs
bloody diarrhea; comma or S-shaped organisms
is campylobacter motile?
e. coli producing shiga-like toxin; can cause HUS
day-care outbreaks, pseudoappendicitis
protazoan causing bloody diarrhea
entamoeba histolytica
protaozoa causing watery diarrhea
giardia, cryptosporidium (in immunocompromised)
treatment for legionella?
UTI - urine with alkaline pH
proteus - very motile - able to break down urea
pneumonia in CF
wound and burn infections
treatment for pseudomonas?
amnoglycoside plus extended-spectrum penicillin (piperacillin, ticarcillin)
aerobic gram-negative rod; oxidase positive, non-lactose fermenting; pyocyanin pigment
hot tub folliculitis
pneumonia, sepsis, UTI, drug use and diabetic osteomyelitis
cellulitis from animal bite, cats, dogs
dairy products, contact with animals
ghon complex
TB granulomas (Ghon focus) with lobar and perihilar LN involvement; reflects primary infection or exposure
mycobacterium scrofulaceum
cervical lymphadenitis in kids
mycobacterium kansasii
pulmonary TB-like symptoms
acid-fast bacillus that likes cold temperatures and cannot be grown in vitro
mycobacterium leprae
reservoir for m. leprae in U.S.?
what does m. leprae infect?
skin and superficial nerves
treatment for leprosy?
long-term oral dapsone - toxicity is hemolysis and methemoglobinemia
which type of Hanson's diseaseiis worse?
lepromatous worse than tuberculoid
the chlamydial petidoglycan wall is unusual in that it lacks what?
muramic acid
treatment for chlamydia?
erythromycin or tetracycline
cytoplasmic inclusions seen on Giemsa or fluorescent antibody-stained smear
infection of liver capsule with RUQ pain; associated with chlamydial or gonococcal infection
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
how do the reticulate bodies of chlamydia replicate?
binary fission
types A, B, and C of chlamydia
Africa/Blindness/Chronic infection
types D-K of chlamydia
urethritis/PID, ectopic pregnancy, neonatal pneumonia or conjunctivitis
types L1, L2, and L3 of chlamydia
lymphogranuloma venereum (acute lymphadenitis - positive Frei test)
treatment for neonate after passage through chlamydia-infected birth canal?
erythromycin eye drops
most common STD in U.S.?
only spirochete that can be visualized using analine dyes (Wright's or Giemsa stan) in light microscopy
shepherd's crook-shaped spirochete
Wal's disease
fatal from of leptospira infection - jaundice, bleeding, renal failure, skeletal muscle necrosis
treatment for Borrelia recurrentis?
doxycycline, erythromycin
treatment for Lyme disease?
what causes yaws?
tremonema pertenue - tropical infection that is not an STD, although VDRL test is positive
what are important reservoirs for ixodes? what is required for tick life cycle?
mice; deer
signs of tertiary syphilis?
broad-based ataxia; positive Romberg; Charcot joints; stroke without hypertension
congenital syphilis?
saber shins, saddle nose, deafness
primary syphilis?
painless chancre
secondary syphilis?
disseminated isease with constitutional symptoms, maculopapular rash (palms and soles), condylomata lata
VDRL positive, FTA positive?
active infection
VDRL positive, FTA negative?
probably false positive
VDRL negative, FTA positive?
successfully treated
VDRL false positives?
Viruses (mono, hepatitis)
Rheumatic fever and rheumatic arthritis
Lupus and leprosy
Weil-Felix reaction?
classic test that uses cross-linking proteus antigens to confirm diagnosis of rickettsia
strep associated with pharyngitis, cellulitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, TSS, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis?
strep pyogenes (group A beta hemolytic)
characteristics of rheumatic fever?
subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum, chorea, carditis
tumbling motility, menigitis in newborns, unpasteurized milk
listeria monocytogenes
virulence factor of staph aureus?
protein A
what does c. difficile produce?
a cytotoxin, an exotoxin that kills enterocytes, causing pseudomembranous colitis
what encodes the exotoxin of corynebacterium diphtheriae?
vesicular papules covered y black eschar
bacillus anthracis
what part of gram-negative bugs inhibits entry of penicillin and vancomycin?
the outer membrane layer
this vaccine contains type B capsular polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid or other protein
h. flu
flagellar antigen of enterobacter?
H antigen
somatic antigen of enterobacter?
O antigen (polysaccharide of endotoxin)
viruses causing watery diarrhea?
rotavirus, adenovirus, norwalk virus
pertussis toxin permanently disables what?
cholera toxin permanently activates what?
how does pertussis toxin promote lymphocytosis?
by inhibiting chemokine receptors
treatment of choice for most rickettsial infections?
classic triad of rickettsiae?
headache, fever, rash (vasculitis)
rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasites and need what?
CoA and NAD
all rickettsiae except what are transmitted by an arthropod vector and cause headache, fever, and rash?
why is coxiella an atypical rickettsia?
because it is transmitted by aerosol and causes pneumonia
what causes rocky mountain spotted fever? to where is it endemic?
rickettsia rickettsii; endemic to east coast
vector for rocky mountain spotted fever?
tick; rickettsia rickettsii
vector for endemic typhus?
fleas; rickettsia typhi
vector for epidemic typhus?
human body louse; rickettsia prowazekii
what causes Q fever?
coxiella burnetii
rickettsial disease with no rash, no vector, negative Wiel-Felix, and casative organism can survive outside for a long time
coxiella burnetii
what does the Weil-Felix reaction assay for?
antirickettsial antibodies, which cross-react with proteus antigen
what is the only bacterial membrane containing cholesterol?
mycoplasma pneumoniae
growth on Eaton's agar?
mycoplasma pneumoniae

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