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PHYAN Exam 4


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WHat is a white blood cell called?
Why are WBCs important?
-crucial to help body fight disease
-produces more, in response to disease or injury
Which kind of cell is completely intact? Contains a nuclei and organelles. . . .
How do WBCs travel?
via blood vessels
What is Leukemia?
-cancer of WBC line in bone marrow
-immature and incapable of immune fxn
What r the 2 types of Leukocytes?

What do all of the granulocytes have in common?
-have lobed nuclei
-r all phagocytic`
What r the 3 granulocytes?
What is a neutrophil?
-Most abundant WBC
-Has fine granules
-Extremely phagocytic
-Attacks BACTERIAL infections
What is a Eosinophil?
-2 lobed nuclei & red granules
-Attacks parasites and worms
What is a Basophil?
-has large, blue, histamine containing granules
-Active in allergies & inflammation
-Releases histamine (vasodilator)
What order (from largest amt to smallest) do the WBCs go in?
What do all agranulocytes have in common?
-Lack of visible granules
-Nuclei r spherical or kidney shaped
Lymphocytes . . .
-Have Large, purple nucleus (takes up most of cell)
-tiny cell
-2nd most abundant
Where do lymphocytes reside?
Lymphoid tissue:
-lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils
-immunity cells
What is a monocyte?
-Largest WBC
-"U" shaped w/ dark blue nucleus
Where do monocytes migrate?
into the tissues, where they become macrophages
Order of the Leukocyte cells, largest to smallest % in body.
What is a platelet?
Fragments of large cells
What is the name of the large cells that platelets are fragmented from?
PLatelets are essential for. . .
Blood clotting
When there is a broken blood vessel, what do the platelets do?

4 steps. . .
a) stick to damaged site
-release chemicals tha attract more platelets
-form a temporary plug to seal the break
b) Secrete SEROTONIN
-causing vessel to spasm (contract)
-narrowing vessel
c) Secrete chemicals that start a:
-Coagulation of the blood occurs in 3-6 minutes
d) Secrete chemicals that:
- Stimulate regrowth of damaged tissue
-dissolve clot
Blood cell formation is called:
Hematopoeisis is in:
-red bone marrow
-adult's axial skeleton
Where do all of the blood cells arise from?
The body can compensate for blood losses up to about what percentage of total volume?
-more than that would be fatal
Transfusion of mismatched blood can be. . .
Whole blood transfusions are routine. What r the steps?
-blood bank collects the blood
-mixes it with anticoagulant
-can be stored for up to 35 days
Blood types are based on:
Interactions between antigens and antibodies
Antigens r:
- complex molecules (PRO)
- genetically unique
- occur on all membranes
- enable body to distinguish own cells
- detect foreign antigens
- activate the immune response
- response includes the secretion of antibodies, which binds ro antigen and destroys it
RBCs contain
Antigens are in
Transfusion of mismatched blood type causes:
- plasma antibodies to bind RBC antigens, clumping cells and clogging blood vessels
- release of hemoglobin causes kidney failure
What is released, when mismatched blood is transfused causing the kindey to fail?
WHat type of antigen does Type A blood have?
A antigen
WHat type of antigen does Type B blood have?
B antigen
WHat type of antigen does Type AB blood have?
AB antigen
WHat type of antigen does Type O blood have?
no antigens

WHen are antibodies formed?
after birth
Type A forms what antibodies?
anti B antibodies
Type B forms what antibodies?
anti A antibodies
Type AB forms what antibodies?
doesn't form any

Type O forms what antibodies?
anti AB antibodies
2 possible incompatibility of transfusion, rxns:
- recipient's anitbodies attack transfused cells

- antibodies in transfused plasma attacks recipient's cells
WHat is the Rh factor?
another RBC antigen

+ or -
Is it better to have the Rh or not to have it?
better to have it
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Mother Rh -
Baby Rh +

during delivery, the mother may be exposed to the baby's Rh+ blood and she will begin to form anti Rh antibodies
-if she becomes preggers again w/ and Rh baby, her antibodies will cross the placenta and destroy the baby's RBCs
-baby becomes anemic, hypoxic and then brain dead, and death come
WHat is the treatment of Erythroblastosis fetalis?
- contains anti Rh antibodies which will bind with the Rh + cells
- blocking the mother's immune response and not allowing her to make her own antibodies against the Rh antigen
When is rhogam given to the mother?
B4 or soon after delivery
the hardware that transports the blood consists of:
- heart pump
- blood vessels - pipes
Where is the heart located?
in the thoracic cavity, between the lungs
Your heart is about the size of your:
clenched fist
The heart is a
hollow, 4 chambered muscular organ
which end of the heart is the inferior end and tilts to the left?
What does the APEX contact?
the diaphragm
The broad superior part of the heart where vessels attach?
WHat is the loose fitting sac that encloses and protects the heart?
How does the pericardial sac protect the heart?
- Isolates the heart from other organs
- Prevents overexpansion
- Protects heart from giving or recieving infections
Where around the heart is the slippery fluid?
What is the slippery fluid in the pericardial space called?
What does the pericardial fluid do?>
- lubricates the heart
- allows it to beat almost w/o friction
What are the 3 layes of the heart wall called?
- Epicardium
- Myocardium
- Endocardium
Which layer of the heart wall it the outermost?
What is the epicardium made of?
epithelial tissue
Which layer of the heart is the thick, middle layer?
What is the myocardium made of?
cardiac muscle
Thickness of mycardium varies depending on:
- contraction needed to eject blood from the area
Which area of the heart has the thickest muscle?
left ventricle
Why does the L ventricle need such a big muscle?
B/c it's pumping blood into the whole body
Which layer of the heart wall is the inner layer?
Which lining of the heart is smooth, inner and lines the chambers and valves?
What is the endocardium made up of?
Simple squamous epithemium overlying thin areolar tissue

-it is continuous with the epi lining bvs
The chambers in the heart the recieve blood returning to the heart in veins:
Blood travels TO the heart in:
The atria are the 2 superior or inferior chambers of the heart?
which atrium recieves venous blood from:
- superior vena cava
- inferior vena cave
- coronary sinus
Drains blood superior to diaphragm
Superior vena cava
Drains blood inferior to diaphragm
Inferior vena cava
Drains heart muscle itself
Coronary sinus
Which atrium recives blood from:
- 4 pulmonary veins
Which veins are the only ones in the body to have oxygenated venous blood in the body?
the pulmonary veins, after they go through the lungs and get oxygenated blood
Which chambers in the heart have thin walls?
the atria

-light workload
-just pump blood into ventricles below and have the help of gravity
What r the 2 inferior chambers of the heart?
- pumps of the heart
Which chambers have a contraction that propels blood out of the heart and into the arteries?
Blood going away from the heart
Arterial blood
-travels in arteries
-usually oxygenated
recieves blood from the right atrium
right ventricle
the right ventricle pumps blood into the
pulmonary trunk
the pulmonary trunk branches into
R & L pulmonary arteries

- the only deoxygenated arterial blood
blood from pulmonary arteries goes to
the lungs for gas exchange
the left ventricle pumps blood into the
aorta & entire body
Ventricles are seperated by a thick:
Ensure one-way flow of blood through the heart
Heart valves
atrioventricular (AV) valves
- between each atrium and its ventricle
- prevents backflow into atria when ventricles contract
Right AV valve
tricuspid valve
Left AV Valve
Bicuspid valve or
Mitral valve
between ventricles & large vessles, prevent backflow into ventricles when relaxed. . .
semilunar valves
Between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk:
pulmonary semilunar valve
Between Left ventricle and aorta:
Aortic semilunar valve
Average heart beats/min
the heart has a _____ metabolic rate.
The heart requires an abundant supply of:
oxygen and nutrients
Does the blood in the heart nourish the chambers?
Myocardium has
extensive BVS
Coronary circulation ensures that:
nutrients reach every muscle cell
R & L coronary arteries
-arise at base of aorta
-circle the heart in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR (coronary) GROOVE
-lie in epicardium, branch down into myocardium
-ALL coronary veins converge into: CORONARY SINUS . . . which empties into the Right atrium
All coronary veins converge into:
the coronary sinus epties into:
Right Atrium
What is it called when you have TEMPORARY ISCHEMIA to the myocardium?
Angina Pectoris
What is ischemia?
insufficient blood delivery
What does angina pectoris feel like?
heavyness or pain in chest
What happens to body when you have Angina Pectoris?
- Myocardium becomes hypoxic & relies on anearobic metabolism
- which then creates lactic acid
- There is reduced coronary blood flow caused by:
Blood clot (thrombosis)
- Myocardial cells are damaged but they recover
When myocardium relies on anaerobic metabolism, what does it produce?
Lactic acid
Myocardium becomes hypoxic when you have:
angina pectoris
What is a myocardial infarction?
heart attack
what is fibrillation?
uncoordinated contractions of the heart
- Heart turns into a completely useless pump
- common cause of death
-certain myocytes r self-excitable, initiate their own depolarization because of leaky Na+ channels
-they pass the action potential from cell to cell via gap junctions
skeletal muscle needs to be innervated but the heart is
controls the rate & sequence of contraction
Intrinsic conduction system
What is the intrinsic conduction system composed of?
-Sinoatrial node "pacemaker"
-Atrioventricular node
-AV bundle, Bundle branches & Purkinje fibers
Special group of cells in the rught atrium that depolarizes at the fastest rate and sets the pace. Vagal tone. The "Pacemaker"
Sinoatrial Node
The vagal tone does what to the heart beat?
slows it down
recieves the impulse from the SA node. The impulse is delayed to allow ventricles to fill
Atrioventricular Node
A network of fibers that carries the contraction signal to the ventricular septum
AV bundle, Bundle branches, Pukinje fibers
where does the contraction of ventricles begin?
at the APEX
Where are the av bundle bundle branches and purkinje fibers located?
interventricular septum & ventricle walls
The electircal currents generated and transmitted through the heart & body
the graphic recording of electrical changes
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Abnormalities in shape and time of electrical impulses indicate
- problems with intrinsic conduction system
- or and myocardial infarction
-- area of dead myocytes
Normal contraction on heart
- atria contract simultaneously
- they relax and the ventricels contract

(high# or top#)

(low # or bottom #)
One complete heart beat takes about
.8 seconds
- Atrial diastole, ventricular systole begins
- AV valves close (preventing backflow)
-- S1 (not due to valve closure)
- Semilunar valves r forced open
- Blood pushes into large arteries
- Atria r filling w/ blood
Ventricular Systole
- Ventricular diastole
- Semilunar valves close
-- preventing backflow into ventricles
-- S2 "DUB"
- Ventricles r momentarily closed chambers
- AV valves open, ventricels begin to flow
Early Diastole
In the cardiac cycle, when is the S1 aka LUB?
During ventricular systole
In the cardiac cycle, when is the S2 aka DUB?
Early Diastole
What are the 3 periods of the cardiac cycle?
- Mid-to-Late Diastole
- Ventricular Systole
- Early Daistole
Most body cells are stationary, making them uncapable of:
-getting food and oxygen
-moving away from their own waste
What does blood transport?
- Water
- Nutrients
- O2
- Hormones
- Heat
- (waste) takes away
The only fluid tissue
Connective tissue: living cells seperated by a nonliving matrix
What do erythrocytes transport?

they make up 45% of blood volume (hematocrit)
What are leukocytes for the body?
defense system
cell fragments
What another name for platelets?
What are platelets involved in?
blood clotting
Platelets and leukocytes make up what percentage of blood in the body?
less than 1%
liquid part of blood
-90% water
-contains over 100 different substances
-amino acid based hormones
-clotting proteins
Plasma Proteins
Structure of erythrocytes. . .
- biconcave discs
-- large surface area for gas exchange
-- no organelles
SInce erythrocytes lack mitochondria they have to generate ATP by:
anaerobic glycolysis

- which also means that they don't use the O2 for themselves.
Since erythrocytes don't have a nucleus:
- can't synthesize proteins, grow or divide
- have a lifespan of 100-200 days
- become old and fragile, die in the spleen
Where do erythrocytes die?
Erythrocytes are a sac of
- iron containing protein (pigment)
- binds and transports O2
- 280 million Hb molecules in 1 RBC
- contains 4 iron atoms
RBC homeostasis
- 250 million made each second
- # is closely monitored
- hormonally controlled
WHen you have low Blood O2, what is released and from where?
the kidney releases

-red bone marrow. . . increases RBC production
Excess RBCs
- cancer of red cell line in bone marrow
- hematocrit of 80%
- increased blood viscosity (super thick)(pulls water out of tissue)
- strains heart
Primary polycythemia
- every other cause
- usually appropriate response to:
-- altitude, exercise, dehydration
Secondary polycythemia
Artificially induced polycythemia
blood doping
-Low O2 carrying capability of the blood
-pale, fatigued, short of breath , chilly
Anemia causes:
-insufficient # of RBCs
-decreased hemoglobin content
-abnormal hemoglobin
When u have an isufficient # of RBCs. . .
- hemorraging may occur
- hemolysis (destruction of RBCs)
- bone marrow failure
iron or vitamin deficiency
decreased hemoglobin content
sickle-cell anemia
-1 of the aa in the Hb is wrong
-Hbs stick together under low O2 conditions
-RBC becomes sticky & sharp
-tissues become hypoxic (low O2) - intense pain
where did sickle cell anemia originate from?
Africa - "Malarial Belt"
--malaria paracite eats hemoglobin
--can't digest Hbs (sickle hemoglobin)
--gene survives
Volume of blood pumped out of the ventricle in one contraction (70ml)
Stroke Volume (SV)
# of contractions per minute
Heart Rate (HR)
Volume of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 minute
Cardiac Output (CO)
Average adult blood volume is:

blood through body in 1 minute
Equation for blood volume
CO = HR * SV
Autonomic NS

Sympathetic NS

Heart Rate
physical or emotional stress
- Stimulates the SA & AV nodes & the cardiac muscle itself
--increases HR & SV
--Increases delivery of O2 & nutrients to body
Autonomic NS

Parasympathetic NS

Heart Rate
physical or emotional stress. When demands decline:

heart rate slows down
Hormone that mimics the sympathetic NS
Hormone that affects the HR & SV
Thyroid Hormone
What do ions cause in the blood?
-imbalances of Na and K cause arryhthmias
Hypocalcemia in the blood causes HR to
Hypercalcemia in the blood
prolongs contractions and may stop the heart
imbalances of Na and K in the blood may cause
Physical factors affecting heart rate:
Weakening of the heart so circulation doesn't meet tissue needs due to:
-clogging of coronary vessels
-high blood pressure
-multiple myocardial infarctions

blood backs up
Congestive Heart Failure
have 1 or 2 nuclei
r short and branching
r not arranged in bundles
Cardiac muscle fibers
Cardiac cells are joined end to end by:
intercalated discs
3 features of the intercalated discs:
1) Adjacent membranes have interdigitating folds
2)Desmosomes (prevent seperation during contraction)
3) Gap junctions
-hollow cylinders allow ions to pass
-transmit action potential
-throughout heart
--cells electrically stimulate eachother
Gap Junctions
Part of the intercalated discs that prevents seperation during contraction
The dynamic (everchanging) pipes of the cardiovascular system
Blood vessels
Blood leaving heart passes through:
-carry blood away from heart
-usually oxygenated
-become progressively smaller
Blood through body travels through these "pipes" starting at heart
Blood returning to heart passes through:
-carry blood to heart
-usually deoxygenated
-become progressively larger
the business end of the circulatory system
-exchange site
-simple squamous epi
-RBCs have to pass single file
where are capillaries scarce?

tendons and ligaments

absent in cartilage, epi, cornea, & lens of the eye

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