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essentails of bio: photosynthesis


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For chloroplast to produce sugar from carbon dioxide in the dark the woud need an artifial supply of ____ and___
Atp and Nadph
What are the primary inputs and outputs of the calvin cycle?
Inputs: Co2, Atp, and Natph
Output: glusclose
Why is water required as a reactant in photosynthesis?
It is the splitting of water that proivdes electrons for converting CO2 to sugar
What is the function of Nadph in the calvin cycle?
It provides the high energy electrons for the reduction of Co2 toform sugar.
The light reactions take place in the region of the chloroplast called the ___ while the calvin cycle takes place in the _____
What are inputs to photosynthesis. what are ouputs?
Inputs:Co2, H2O, and Light
Outputs: O2, and sugar
What color of light is the least effective in driving photosynthesis? why?
Green light is reflected by leaves no absorbed, therefore can not drive photosynthesis
When light strikes chlorophyll molecules they lose electrons, which are ultimatly replaced by splitting a molecule of what?
ATP and Nadph are produced by reactions that take place in the ___ and are consumed by reactions in the ___
The reactions of the calvin cycle are not directly dependent on light and yet they usually do not occur at night,why?
Requires the output of the light, atp and nadph to proceed
How are monocots and dicots different in terms of their see leaves? Roots? Flower petals?
A monocot embryo has a single seed leaf (cotyledon) while a dicot embryo ha two. Monocots have fibrous roots and from a wide mat, while dicots have a vertical taproot. The flower petals of monocots usualy come in multiples of three, while dicots come in multiples of 4 or 5
Which of the following cell types gives us the potential to give rise to all the other: collenchyma, sclerenchyma, parenchyma, water conducting cell?
The tissue system that covers and protects the plant is called the ___ tissue system, while the ___ tissue system is the main site of photosynthesis.
Many plant species can reproduce both sexually and asecually. Which mode of reproduction would generally be more advantages in a location where the compostiion of the soil is changing. why?
Sexual, because it generates genetic variation among the offspring enhancing the potential for adaptation to a changing environment.
Pollen develops in the ____ of the male organs called____
ovules develop within the ____ of female organs called_____.
The two products of fertilization are the ___ which gives rise to the embryo and the ___ which stores nutrients.
Zygote; edosperm
What term describes plants that produce flowers only at the end of its second growing season
What 2 basic cellular mechanisms account for primary growth?
cell division and cell lengthening
What type of cell tissue makes up wood? what about bark?
Secondary xylem: all tissues exteriior to the vascular cambium
Secondary phloem , cork cambium and cork
What is the primary role of roots? shoots?
anchors, absorbs nutrients, and stores food

Photosynthesis center, transport, reproduction, hormone production
How can you tell if i plant is a monocot of a dicot?
Number of seed leaves, shape of its root system, number of petals in its flowers, arrangement of vascular bundles in its stem
A pea bod is formed from a ___. A pea inside the pod is formed from a ____
ovary, ovule
What are these structures funcitons
Pollen grian..
pollen grain produces sperm
ovule Develops into seend
anther produces pollen
ovary contains ovules
sepal protects and unopened flower
petal attracts pollinators
What part of the plant are you eating when you consume a; tomatoe, celery stalk, pea, lettuce, beet
Fruit (ripened ovary) , leaf stalk, fruit, leaf, root
Name three kinds of asecual reproduction found in plants.
bulbs, root sprouts, and runners
In angiosperms each pollen grain produces two sperm. what do they do?
one fertilizes an egg while and the other fertilizes a cell that develops into stored food.
In the angiosperm life cycle what is directly dependent on meiosis?
production of spores.
What is the closest to the center of a woody stem? the furthest?
primary xylem, cork cambium
Plants require nutrients which they acquire from the atmospher in the form of _____ and from the soil in the form of ____ and _____
carbon dioxide; water; minerals
What is the most common nutrient deficiency in plants?
Nitrogen deficiency
What are mycorrhizae?
symbiotic associations of roots and fungi
Why would a pollutant that kills soil bacteria result in nitrogen deficiency in plants?
Because certain soil bacteria make nitrogen available to plants in forms they can use.
Contrast cohesion and adhesion and describe the role of each in the ascent of xylem sap..
Cohesion is the sticking together of identical molecules- water molecules in the case of xylem sap. Adhesion is the sticking together of different kinds of molecules, as in the adhesion of water to the cellulose of xylem walls. Cohesion enables tranpiration to pull xylem sap up without the water in the vessels seperating; adhesive helps to support xylem sap against teh downward pull of gravity
The status of axillary buds-dormant or growing- depends on the relative concentrations of ____ moving down from the shoot tip and _____ moving up from the roots.
auxin; cytokenins
Which two hormones regulate seed dormancy and germination? what are their opposing effects?
Abscisic acidmantains seed dormnancy; gibberellins promote germination.
a plant can tell which way is up
can respond to touch, using objects as support
grow towards or away from stimulus
produced in the apical meristems at the tips of shoots. stimulates or inhibits the elongation of shoots and roots
as fruit ages it gives off ethylene gas, fruit growers use it to control ripening. causes loss of leaves
produced by growing roots, embryos, and fruits. hormones that promote cell division. ratio from auxin to cyto helps coordinate growth of roots and shoots
Stimulate the elongation of stems and leaves and he development of fruits. can induce some plants to develop seedless fruits without fertilization.
Ploem sap
a solution of mostly water and sucrose, is transported from sites of sugar production to other parts of the plant.
Xylem sap
a solution of mostly water and inorganic ions, is transported from roots to the rest of the plant body
Auxin causes a shoot to bend toward light by
stimulating growth on the dark side of the shoot.
bud and sprouts often form on tree stumps due to the action of the hormome _____
What embryonic stage is common to the development of all animals?
What is metamorphosis?
the transformation from a larval form of an animal to an adult form
In key features of embryonic development, humans and other chordates are most like which other animal group?
What mode of heterotrophic nutrition distinguishes animals from fungi, which are also heterotrophs?
Why is animal evolution during the early cambrian referred to as an "explosion"?
Because a great diversity of animals evolved in a relatively short time span.
A round pizza is to ____ symmetry as a fork is to ___ symmetry
As representatives of classes of mollusks, a garden snail is an example of a ____; a clam is a_____; and a squid is a_____
gastropod; bivalve; cephalopod
The phylum arthropoda is named for its members' _____
jointed appendages
Which major arthropod group is mainly aquatic?
contrast teh skeleton of an echinoderm wiht that of an arthropod
AN echinoderm has an endoskeleon; an arthropod has an exoskeleton
What four features do we share with invertebrate chordates such as lancelots?
1. dorsal, hollow nerve chord
2. notochord
3. gill structures at some time during development.
4. post-anal tail at some time during development.
what features of our skeleton is an example of segmentation?
vertebrae of our backboe
A shark as a _____ skeleton while a tuna has a ____ skeleton.
cartilaginous; bony
The oldest class of tetrapods are the ____
What is an amniotic egg?
A shelled egg with the embryo contained in a fluid filled sac.
Birds and reptiles differ in their main source of body heat, with birds being ____ and reptiles being _____
endotherms; ectotherms
What are two main hallmarks of mammals?
Hair and mammary glands.
To which mammalian order do we belong? what are the two main subgroups of this order?
Primates; prosimians and anthropoids
How many hominid species existed 1.7 million years ago?
Humans first evolved on what continent
Why is homo habilis known as "handy man"
because it was the earliest hominid that definitely created and used stone tools
Lucy belonged to what species?
Australopithecus afarensis
What is an animal?
eukaryotics, multicellular, heterotrophic , sexual reproduction, no cell wall, motile, nervous system
Bilateral symmetry in the animal kingdom is best correlated with
motility and active predation and escape
Which of the following categories include all others in the list: arthropod, arachnid, insect, butterfly, crustacen, millipede.
Reptiles are much more extensively adapted to life on land than amphibians in that reptiles;
lay eggs that are enclosed in shells
What is the name of the phylum to which humans belong? for what anatomical structure is the phylum named? where in your body is this anatomical structure found?
Chordata; notochord; cartilage disks between your vertebrates
The two major groups of primates are _____ and ____. give example of each
Prosimians;lemurs, lorises, pottos, tarsiers
Anthropods; apes, baboons, new world monkeys, gorillas
Fossils suggest that the first major trait distinguishing human primates from other primates was
In 1600's ___ experiments showed what
von helmont;plant biomass does not come from soil
put the following list of species in order from oldest to the most recent; homo erectus, australopithecus species, homo habilis, homo sapiens.
Aust, homo habilis, homo erectus, homo sapiens
What are the following animals phylum;
human, leech , sponge, lobster, sea anemone
sea anemone- cnidaria
How are light independent and dependent mirror like reactions
Light dependent converts sunlight into chemical energy and light independent uses that energy to fix carbon dioxide into gluclose
Photosynthesis is drivin by? and takes place where?
Red and blue light; chloroplast
What produces primary growth and primary xylem and phloem? secondry growht and secondary xylem and phloem?
Apical meristem;lateral maristem
Important plant nutrients
carbon, from atmosphere
phophorus, nitrogen from soil
electron in the atoms absorbs eneregy
electron will then lose the energy.
Light Dependent Reaction
antenna complex collects photons
electron absorbs the energy of photon
as energy of elctron falls, energy is captured in ATP an Nadph
Light Independent reaction
takes place in calvin cycle
this is where carbon dioxide is made into gluclose molecules "carbon fixation"
How can you tell the difference between monocots and dicots
leaf types
vascular bundles
flower parts
what are the 3 types of ground tissue
parenchyma-storage of sugars and starch, site of photosyn
collenchyma- thick walled flexible support
sclerenchyma-add support and strenght
Four main types of plant
Mosses-multicellular; non vascular
Ferns-vascular; no seeds
Gymno sperms- "naked" seeds and pollen
Angiosperms-flowers and seeds
non-vascular, no roots has "rhizoidswater moves through by diffusion thus must be close to water and ground requirs it for fertilization so spermies can swim leafy bit of moss is haploid
has true vascular tissue cellulose and support can live far from water then mosses .. still no seeds still need water for sperm
aka conifers or evergreens
has true vascular tissue and true seeds and pollen but no flowers
naked seeds- no fruit to suround it
"enclosed seed" The flower appears.
fluid filled cavity between digestive tube and outer body wall.. more advanced if applicable
Phylum Porifera
-ancient and primitive
-glass spicules
-collars trap food
Phylum Cnidaria
-hydra jelly fish
-no organs or brain
-radial symmetry
-stings prey
Phylum Playhelminthes
-flukes and tapeworms
-bi lateral symmetry
-true organs
-lack respitory or circulatory systems
Phylum Nematoda
-a million in a square meter of soil
-10-20,000 species-estimates of up to 2 million
-no circulatory or respiratory systems
- simplest anmimal wiht complete digestive system
Phylum Arthroda
-insects, arachnids and crustceans
- ones million- estimates of 9 mil
-firs tanimals to make transition to land (390 mya)
-exoskeleton of chitin
3 classes
insecta, arachnida, and crustacea
Class Insecta
850,000 specias (est. 8-9 mill)- 350,000 are beetles
- six legs; to pair of wings
-flight is an enormous advantage
Class Arachnidae
-spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions
- eight legs
- carnivorous
-single lens eye
Class crustacea
crab, lobster, shrimp crayfish (most aquatic except snowbug)
-chitin exoskeleton
"stomach foot"
moist environment, some live on land
filter feeders
eyes and tentacles but no head
biggest invertebrates
Phylim echinoderms
(sand dollars star fish)
-endoskeleton but no vertebrate
-radial symmetry
-biig of a puzzle evolutionarily
Chordata 7 classes
agnatha, chondrichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves, mammalia
Class agnatha
jawless fishes
-eel like
-cartilaginous skeleton
-some parasitic
class chondrichthyes
cartilaginous fish
-have jaws sharks skates rays
-no bones
Class osteichthyes
bony fish
-most diverse and abundant of all vertebrates
-96% of modern fish
First vertebrates on land
lobe-finned fish 400 mya
Class amphibia
350 mya
means double life (fish and reptile)
lungs replace gills
Class Reptilia
arose 320 mya
internal fertilizaiton
sperm transfer on land
Permian Era
220 mya drier climate reptiles became dominant -dinasaurs
Class aves
150 mya
common features between birds and reptiles

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