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Contemporary Advertising Chapter 5


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The acquired mental position--positive or negative-- regarding some idea or object.
brand interest  
An individual's openness or curiosity about a brand.
brand loyalty  
The consumer's conscious or unconscious decision-- expressed through intention or behavior--to repurchase a brand continually. This occurs because the consumer perceives that the brand has the right product features, image, quality, or relationship at the right price.
business markets  
Organizations that buy natural resources, component products, and services that they resell, use to conduct their business, or use to manufacture another product.
centers of influence  
Customers, prospective customers, or opinion leaders whose opinions and actions are respected by others.
central route to persuasion  
One of two ways researchers Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann theorize that marketers can persuade consumers. When consumers have a high level of involvement with the product or the message, they are motivated to pay attention to the central, product-related information in an ad, such as product attributes and benefits, or demonstrations of positive functional or psychological consequences; see elaboration likelihood model.
The point of awareness and comprehension of a stimulus.
cognitive theory  
An approach that views learning as a mental process of memory, thinking, and the rational application of knowledge to practical problem solving.
conditioning theory  
The theory that learning is a trial-and-error process. Also called stimulus-response theory.
consumers, consumer market  
People who buy products and services for their own, or someone else's, personal use.
consumer behavior  
The activities, actions, and influences of people who purchase and use goods and services to satisfy their personal or household needs and wants.
consumer decision process  
The series of steps a consumer goes through in deciding to make a purchase.
A homogeneous group's whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things, typically handed down from generation to generation.
current customers  
People who have already bought something from a business and who may buy it regularly.
Surroundings that can affect the purchase decision.
evaluation of alternatives  
Choosing among brands, sizes, styles, and colors.
evaluative criteria  
The standards a consumer uses for judging the features and benefits of alternative products.
evoked set  
The particular group of alternative goods or services a consumer considers when making a buying decision.
The trading of one thing of value for another thing of value.
government markets  
Governmental bodies that buy products for the successful coordination of municipal, state, federal, or other government activities.
An acquired or developed behavior pattern that has become nearly or completely involuntary.
hierarchy of needs  
Maslow's theory that the lower biological or survival needs are dominant in human behavior and must be satisfied before higher, socially acquired needs become meaningful.
industrial markets  
Individuals or companies that buy products needed for the production of other goods or services such as plant equipment and telephone systems.
informational motives  
The negatively originated motives, such as problem removal or problem avoidance, that are the most common energizers of consumer behavior.
interpersonal influences  
Social influences on the consumer decision-making process, including family, society, and cultural environment.
A relatively permanent change in thought processes or behavior that occurs as a result of reinforced experience.
A group of potential customers who share a common interest, need, or desire; who can use the offered good or service to some advantage; and who can afford or are willing to pay the purchase price. Also, an element of the media mix referring to the various targets of a media plan.
Any person or organization that has products, services, or ideas to sell.
The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy the perceived needs, wants, and objectives of individuals and organizations.
mental files  
Stored memories in the consumer's mind.
The underlying drives that stem from the conscious or unconscious needs of the consumer and contribute to the individual consumer's purchasing actions.
The basic, often instinctive, human forces that motivate us to do something.
negatively originated motives  
Consumer purchase and usage based on problem removal or problem avoidance. To relieve such feelings, consumers actively seek a new or replacement product.
nonpersonal influences  
Factors influencing the consumer decision- making process that are often out of the consumer's control, such as time, place, and environment.
opinion leader  
Someone whose beliefs or attitudes are respected by people who share an interest in some specific activity.
organizational buyers  
People who purchase products and services for use in business and government.
Our personalized way of sensing and comprehending stimuli.
perceptual screens  
The physiological or psychological perceptual filters that messages must pass through.
personal processes  
The three internal, human operations-- perception, learning, and motivation--that govern the way consumers discern raw data (stimuli) and translate them into feelings, thoughts, beliefs, and actions.
A change in thought process or behavior that occurs when the change in belief, attitude, or behavioral intention is caused by promotion communication (such as advertising or personal selling).
physiological screens  
The perceptual screens that use the five senses--sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell--to detect incoming data and measure the dimension and intensity of the physical stimulus.
postpurchase dissonance  
See theory of cognitive dissonance.
postpurchase evaluation  
Determining whether a purchase has been a satisfactory or unsatisfactory one.
prospective customers  
People who are about to make an exchange or are considering it.
psychological screens  
The perceptual screens consumers use to evaluate, filter, and personalize information according to subjective standards, primarily emotions and personality.
reference groups  
People we try to emulate or whose approval concerns us.
reseller markets  
Individuals or companies that buy products for the purpose of reselling them.
selective perception  
The ability of humans to select from the many sensations bombarding their central processing unit those sensations that fit well with their current or previous experiences, needs, desires, attitudes, and beliefs, focusing attention on some things and ignoring others.
The images we carry in our minds of the type of person we are and who we desire to be.
social classes  
Traditional divisions in societies by sociologists-- upper, upper-middle, lower-middle, and so on--who believed that people in the same social class tended toward similar attitudes, status symbols, and spending patterns.
Physical data that can be received through the senses.
stimulus-response theory  
Also called conditioning theory. Some stimulus triggers a consumer's need or want, and this in turn creates a need to respond.
A segment within a culture that shares a set of meanings, values, or activities that differ in certain respects from those of the overall culture.
theory of cognitive dissonance  
The theory that people try to justify their behavior by reducing the degree to which their impressions or beliefs are inconsistent with reality.
transformational motives  
Positively originated motives that promise to "transform" the consumer through sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, and social approval. Also called reward motives.
transnational (global) markets  
Consumer, business, and government markets located in foreign countries.
A product's ability to provide both symbolic or psychological want satisfaction and functional satisfaction. A product's problem- solving potential may include form, time, place, or possession utility.
Needs learned during a person's lifetime.

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