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American Pageant Chapters 22 and 23

Based on brianna's study guides, with additions and corrections by me from my study guides. best of both worlds


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Manassas Junction
Other name for Bull Run
Flotilla commanded by this guy helped capture the Confed's New Orleans
Union general entrusted w/ GA's conquest; he captured & burned Atlanta in 1864; was a pioneer practitioner of "total war"
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln's running mate in 1864 who was used to get the War Democrat vote of the Border States
Boston Common
Shaw's family builds a memorial about the thousand+ men that died
Sec of State who was stabbed on the same day that Lincoln was assassinated; he was the 3rd in line for succession
Winfield Scott
Commander of the Union army who opposed keeping the So. In the Union if they were vehemently against it
Anaconda Policy
Union's war plans to defeat the Confed. rebels; want to blockade the Confed posts, cut Confed in half by taking control of MI R. to stop supplies, want to capture Richmond, want to liberate slaves to undermine their economy, & Grant's addn: engage Confeds strength and grind it into submission
Fort Pillow
Fort in MI where a bunch of blacks were slaughtered after their surrender
Former wooden US warship that got in the hands of the Confeds; they plated that **** w/ iron railroad rails & renamed it
Cold Harbor
Impregnable Confed position that Grant issued a risky assault n in June of 1864; in a few minutes, about 7000 men were killed/wounded
Five Civilized Tribes
Name of the most populous Indian tribes in the Indian Territory: Cherokee, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; they sided w/ confederacy
3-day battle in 1863 that marked a turning point of the Civil War; Lee & his army have to retreat
Morrill Tariff Act
Tariff passed in 1861 that increased existing duties from 5 to 10%
1864 candidate for presidency from the Copperhead/Peace Democrat faction; he ended up getting 45% of the pop vote but got creamed in the electoral
Burnside gave ctrl to Hooker, and confeds. routed Union troops, more Union bloodbath. Stonewall Jackson killed by friendly fire, tho
Gov of GA who was a belligerent states' rights advocate who wanted to secede from the secession and fight both sides
"Peace Democrats"
Northern Democratic faction who did NOT support Lincoln
Peninsula Campaign
Union troops moved to Richmond along narrow peninsula by water w/ 100K men;i. McClellan captured Yorktown, neared Richmond, had to wait b/c Lincoln diverted reinforcements to protect DC; dealt crushing counterattack w/ Seven Days' Battle
Clara Barton
Woman who helped transform nursing into a respected profession, creating another category of employment for women in the postwar era
Copperhead Congressman from OH who publicly demanded an end to the wicked war; convicted by a military tribunal for being treasonous & banished to the Confederacy where he escaped to CN & ran for governor of OH from foreign lines
AU archduke that Napoleon III put in charge of MX; was eventually killed by firing squad in 1867 after US threatened to march So.
National Banking System
Financial landmark of the Civ War; authorized by Congress in 1863 to stimulate bonds sales as well as est. a standard bank note currency
Risky business of smuggling past the blockade put on the Confederacy by the Union; yielded 700% profits, but was wayyyy risky
Shoddy millionaires
War profiteers that provide inferior quality goods in order to make a quick buck off of the gov't/people's dollar; made cardboard soles, selling old/blind horses, re-spun wool, etc.
Congressional Medal of Honor
Highest military award; blacks in the Civil War attained about 22 of these; Chamberlain got this for his bravery at Gettysburg
Army of the Potomac
75,000 volunteers raised by Lincoln to put down the "rebellion" in the Confederacy; army trained in Washington, D.C.
commanded 20th Regiment of Maine
Ford's Theater
Where Lincoln was assassinated
Union party
The Republicans cleverly united w/ War Democrats to create this party, temporarily passing the Repub. Party out of existence
Appomattox Court House
Location in VA where, after Union forces captured Richmond, Grant & Lee met to end the war; Lee granted generous surrender
Jefferson Davis
Pres. Of Confederacy who didn't enjoy personal popularity & there was talk of impeachment amongst displeased Confeds
What above ship became renamed to; destroyed 2 Union ships in the Chesapeake Bay; was eventually destroyed to keep it from getting in the hands of Unionists
"shoddy millionaires"
Term applied to dishonest agents that put profits above patriotism and gave the Union army cardboard shoes and ****
Stonewall Jackson
Lee's chief lieutenant who was a gifted tactical theorist and master of speed/deception
Diplomatic recognition
South craved this as key to their victory; they didn't get it
Army of Northern Virginia
Because the capitol of Confed. is Richmond & Lincoln's Potomac army is training in DC, VA needs to amass a counter-army; was a state militia led by Lee
"Lee's Ragamuffins"
Tattered Southern veterans who wept as their commander (Lee) surrendered & their cause was shattered
"high tide of the Confederacy"
What Pickett's charge was called, marked the highest point of Confed movement, they were to never get past PA
Bayonet vote
Voting bloc of returned Union soldiers and veterans that helped propel Lincoln to his reelection
Sherman's Sentinels
chimneys were all that was left standing in ravaged south
July 4, 1863 Grant wins decisive victory in MI bringing Grant to Lincoln's attn as a possible General; was a back-to-back victory w/ Gettysburg; 6wk siege that captured MI R.
Meat-grinder warfare
The type of warfare Grant took on, using his numbers against Lee; thought Confeds would run out of bullets before he would run out of men
General who gained his start by capturing Forts Henry & Donelson; given command of Union forces attacking Vicksburg, the Confed's lifeline to We. Supplies
Fort Sumter
One of two significant forts that was still Northern controlled in the So. Post-secession; was in Charleston Harbor
Battle of Antietam
after McClellan resumed control of Union army, "Little Mac"'s army men found Lee's plans on the floor & halted Lee in Sept 1862. Most decisive engagement in world history, EU nations who were teetering on whether or not to recognize Confeds finally saw Union pwr & sided w/ them; it was the non-loss that Lincoln needed to launch the Emancipation Proc
General of Confed army whose futile charge broke the back of the Confed attack/cause
USS Kearsarge
Destroyed the Alabama
Tiny Union ironclad built in 100 days to help fend off the Merrimack in Chesapeake Bay; proves wooden ships=obsolete
AK, NC, TN, and VA
The four states that seceded after the battle of Fort Sumter
First Battle of Bull Run
AKA Manassas Junction; Union forces attack Confed ones here, but Confeds send reinforcements which confuse the Unionists & they run away; Confeds get a "military picnic" out of the Unionists' lunches & their egos get hella inflated which screw them over later
West Indian port that became the leading rendezvous point for blockade runners
Discovery of petroleum gushers in PA led to ppl called this trying to get a cut of the profit
General who assumed command of the Union army after McClellan, led 2nd battle of bull run
Ex-prez who felt that emancipation shouldn't be "inflicted" on slavery
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
US first female physician who helped organize the Sanitary Commission to provide medical supplies/assistance to armies in the field
"three-hundred dollar men"
Derisive term for draftees who paid $300 to escape the draft
"Simple Susan Tyrant"
Nickname given to Lincoln because he liked bending the rules to keep the union together
Jay Cooke and Company
Private banking house that the Treasury was forced to market its bonds thru; they got 3/8 of 1% on all sales
Senator of KY who had 2 sons who became generals in the opposing armies of the Civil War
Samuel Mudd
Doctor who treated Booth's broknen leg, charged as a conspirator & convicted; his grandson Richard tried to get his name cleared
Wendell Phillips
Crazy abolitionist from a chapter or two ago that condemned Lincoln as a "first-rate second-rate man" for not issuing the Emancipation sooner
Grant won here in TN, so state was now clear and GA could be invaded
Napoleon III
Emp of FR who sent armies to MX City in 1863 while US was busy w/ Civil War (violated Monroe Doctrine)
Bounty jumpers
Men who volunteer to go in someone's stead for a cash reward and ten jump to another town and draft-dodge; pocket $1000 and move on
Unneutral building in GB of Confederate commerce-raiders like this vessel: the vessel escaped in 1862 to Portuguese Azores & took weapons from 2 Eng. Ships that followed it; eventually GB paid $15.5 million to US over arbitration
Frederick Douglass
Ex-slave who was responsible for raising 2 MA regiments composed entirely of black men
English Reform Bill of 1867
GB became a true political democracy after it passed this bill, just 2 years after the Civil War in the US ended
Border States
Only states left that didn't secede: MO, KY, MD, DE, and WV
January 20
State holiday in the So. Commemorating Lee's bday
Lincoln's SecWar
supervised voting
colored ballots and troops in border states ensured Lincoln's ppl won
20th Regiment of Maine
commanded by Chamberlain; Last regiment on union line, told not to retreat or surrender; They push confeds back but run out of ammo, so they do a bayonet charge
Seven Days' Battles
Confed counterattack led by Lee in June/July 1862; the Confeds pushed McClellan back to the sea & the Peninsula Campaign became a failure, leading to the dismissal of McClellan
Emancipation Proclamation
On Jan 1 1863, Lincoln declared that the slaves in the Confed were forever free (doesn't pertain to slaves in Border States or conquered So. Areas...)
John Wilkes Booth
On April 14, 1865 (Good Friday) this crazed, pro-southern actor, shot Lincoln in the head & assassinated his ass in the Ford's Theatre
54th Massachusetts Regiment
Regiment composed entirely of black soldiers about 1500-3000 men led by Colonel Shaw; sent to assault Fort Wagner
Issue nth and sth fighting over (not slavery)
Required military duty; passed by Congress for the first time in 1863
DE, KY, MD, MO, and WV
Border States - Only states left that didn't secede
Editor of the NY Tribune who was staunchly antislavery & loved Lincoln's proclamation
"Jeb" Stuart
Confederate captain who led forces against McClellan's while Mac was chasing after Stonewall -- completely encircled McClellan's stalled forces near Richmond
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln's 1864 running mate who was a War Democrat from TN who ran w/ Lincoln to bolster the War Democrat votes from Borders
Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles
Five Civilized Tribes; they sided w/ confederacy; Name of the most populous Indian tribes in the Indian Territory
"War Democrats"
Northern Democratic faction who supported Lincoln's administration
Sanitary Commission
Founded by Dr. Blackwell to provide medical supplies/assistance to armies in the field
Bounty brokers
Those who enticed people to enlist by giving them a bonus sum of money
Fort Henry
Confed fort on the TN River, taken by Grant
Pinkerton's Detective Agency
Intelligence agency that was reporting to McClellan falsely that the Confeds outnumbered him
Total War
Nth troops looted, destroyed RRs, took supplies, waged war on morale at ppl's homes
"cotton famine"
About a year and a half after the Civil War began, GB stores of cotton became depleted leading to a lot of layoffs
Union officer, decimated VA's Shenandoah Valley
New York Draft Riot 1863
1863 - Irish workers revolted against draft - they didn't want to fight for blacks who would take their jobs
Butternut region
Region where an antislavery war was extremely unpopular; consisted of So. OH, IN, and IL.
General who took over the Army of the Potomac in 1861; grad of West Point who took every milit. Conquest cautiously, thought Confeds outnumbered him
Dominion of Canada
Commonwealth of GB that was est. in 1867 as a result of the US Civil War;
Stephen Douglas
Gifted leader of Northern Democrats who died seven weeks after the war began of typhoid
Port Hudson
Last Southern bastion on the Mississippi that fell 5 days after Vicksburg
GB mail steamer that was stopped by a Union warship north of Cuba
Thirteenth Amendment
Amendment passed 8mos after the end of the Civil War officially putting a ban on slavery
King Wheat and King Corn
Two northern exports that became "king," because they were blessed w/ ideal agri conditions
Single-shot rifle
Standard issued weapon given to soldiers
Plains Indians
Indians who with union
Clara Barton
Florence Nightingale of the Civil War; est. clean war-hospital practices; disinfects instruments and raises the quality of nursing care
City in VA where Burnside attacked Lee's forces, 10,000 No. forces were slaughtered here in a crushing defeat
The above guy's plight inspired this man to create a character known as "Nolan" in his The Man Without a Country
Cold Harbor
Frontal assault where Union soldiers rode into battle w/ names pinned on their back, within minutes thousands die
Homestead Act of 1862
Act that gave free gold nuggets & land to try to prevent recession
Andrew Johnson
VP of the country who was supposed to attend the play w/ Lincoln but fell ill
Salmon Chase
Overambitious Secretary of the Treasury who had a faction vying for his succession of Lincoln
Location of a gory battle between Confed & Union forces [led by Grant] where the Union was prevented from getting Corinth, MI
Writ of habeas corpus
The right to know why you're being convicted was taken away by Lincoln to prosecute anti-Unionists, thereby ignoring this document
The North's famous high-general who kicked a lot of ass
Fort Donelson
Confed fort on the Cumberland River, taken by Grant
Laird rams
Two Confederate warships being constructed in GB that were designed to destroy Union wood ships that were blockading the So.
Arlington House
Lee's mansion in VA that's a nat'l landmark
Wilderness Campaign
Fighting campaign fought by Grant against Lee in the wilderness of VA in May/Jun 1864
Repeating rifle
War weaponry evolves and this standard issue can kill more people faster
Led 54th Massachusetts Regiment; regiment composed entirely of black soldiers about 1500-3000
Radical Democrats who openly attacked the draft, hated that Lincoln was fighting a "****** War" & had political strength in OH, IN, and IL
Trent Affair
When the above steamer was stopped, the Union soldiers took out 2 confederate diplomats, pissing the **** out of GB
Second Battle of Bull Run
Lee moved northward & in August 1862 issued a beating to Pope & his Union army, & then thrust his way into MD
Lee decides to go invade PA in the north to invade DC from north - decisive blow. Both sides inadvertently meet here
Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War
A committee in Congress created in late 1861 that was comprised mainly of radical Republicans who pressed Lincoln for emancipation
A first-rate general from VA who was offered command of the No. armies but when VA seceded he fought w/ them
Officer training school (OTS)
where educated, wealthy people were trained to be officers

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