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Basic Group
Roles, Norms, Cohesiveness, Size, Composition, Status
Team Formula vs group formula
team: 1+1+1 > 3 ; group; 1+1+1 < 3
People play multiple roles, can shift roles rapidly when needed, can be major conflict between roles
Asch Studies
Norms push us towards conformity, members with differing opinions feel pressure to align with others
Hawthorne Studies
Group performance is effected by the group's status, group influence is significant in affecting individual behavior, money was less a factor than group standards and sentiments
Team popularity
out perform, utilization or resources, flexible and responsive, participation in making decisions can increase motivation
Types of teams
problem solving, self-managed, cross-functional, virtual
Group Cohesiveness
Increase status of group and the difficulting of getting in to the group
team effectiveness model
Work Design, Composition, Process, & Context
Reason to join a group
Security, Status, Self-esteem, Affiliation, Power, Goal Achievement
Types of group
Command Group, Task Groups, interest groups
Status equity
If inequality is percieved, it creates disequilibrium, which results in some type of corrective behavior
Does size of group effect behavior
Yes - smaller is faster at completing accomplishments, larger is better at decision making, large can cause social loafing
Social loafing
1+1+1 < 3
Composition of groups
groups require people of all skill sets to be effective. Diversity can slow down progress but results in better decision skills in the long run.
Group think
people in groups may go with the majority to keep harmony and not stand out, this leads to bad judgement and decisions
Group Shift
Can lead to greater the acceptable risk taking
Each person giving ideas, no discusion,
nominal group technique
Members meet as a group, but work independently, each writes their own ideas on the problem, each member presents one idea, no discussion, then discuss each idea for clarity, each ranks ideas on their own, and aggregate sum wins
electronic meeting
people can sit around a table, but each types what they want to say so people can generate ideas simultaniously
Difference between teams and groups
a group that is together primarily to share information and help make decisions that allow each to do their own work, a team generates positive synergy through collective work that requires joint effort, potential for greater output than the sum of the parts
Team effectiveness; Context
adaquate resources, leadership and structure, climate of trust, performance evaluation and reward system
Team effectiveness; Composition
abilties of members, personality, allocating roles, diversity, size of teams, member flexibility, membe preferences
team effectiveness; work design
autonomy, skill variety, task identity, task significance
team effectiveness; process
common purpose, specific goals, team efficacy, conflict levels, social loafing
Turning individuals into team players
some are natural, others can be taught problem solving, communication skills, negotiation skills, conflict management skills, others are best left to be individuals
Team needs
small enough to be efficient and effective, properly trained in skills their members will need, allocated enough time their members will need to get the job done, be given authority to resolve the problems and implement corrective action, have a designative 'champion' who's job it is to help the team get around roadblocks and red tape issues
Teams make sense when⬦
there is interdependence between the tasks, when the success of the team depends on the success of the individuals, success of the individuals depends on each other,.
includes transference and understanding of meaning
Functions of communication
control, motivation, emotional-expression, information transfer
Communication process model
sender - encoding - message - channel - decoding - reciever - noise - feedback
Direction of communication
Downward, upward, lateral
Types of interpersonal communication
oral, written, non verbal,
Gender effect on communication
Men communicate to emphasize status, women communicate to create connections
Communication to provide performance feedback
1.Focus on specific behavior, 2. keep feedback impersonal, 3. Keep feedback goal oriented, 4. make feedback well timed, 5. ensure understanding, 6. direct negative feedback toward behavior that is controllable by the recipient.
Listening vs talking
Listening is more tireing than talking as it demands intellectual effort
Improve listening skills
1. make eye contact, 2. Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions, 3. avoid distrating actions or gestures, 4. ask questions, 5. paraphrase, 6. avoid interupting, 7. Don't overtalk
Leadership is
the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
leaders vs managers
not all leaders are managers, and not all managers are leaders, just because you are appointed a manager, does not mean you can lead effectively
Trait theories
that it is possible to describe a leader based on his traits: intelligence, charisma, decisiveness, enthusiasm, strength, bravery, integrity, self-confidence . . .
the most important trait of effective leaders
problem with trait theories (big 5)
do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders, than the long term effectiveness of them
Behavior theories
they say that there must be something unique about how a leader behaves
trait theories vs behavior theories
if trait theories were true then leaders are born, if behavior theories were true then leaders can be created and taught
initiating structure
extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment.
is described as he etent to which a person is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutal trust, respect for subordinates ideas and regard for their feelings
leaders high on initiating structure and high on consideration tend to achieve high on subordinate performance and satisfaction
employee oriented leaders
described as emphasizing interpersonal relations - associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction
production oriented leaders
described as emphasizing technical or task aspects of the job - low group productivity and low worker satisfaction
Contingency Theories
Fiedler, leader-member exchange, path-goal, and leader participation
Fiedler leadership model
proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between leader's style of interacting with his or her subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader
LPC questionaire
least-preferred co-worker (lpc) questionaire containing 16 contrasting adjectives such as pleasant/unpleasant and purports to measure whether a person is task-oriented or relationship-oriented. It asks one to describe one person he has LEAST ENJOYED working for by rating that person from 1-8 for each adj. - believed to tell more about the person taking the test, than the person they are describing
after LPC
then you need to match the leader to the situation by 3 factors: leader-member relations, task structure and position power
task oriented leaders
tend to perform better in situations that were very favorable or very unfavorable
relationship leaders
perform best in moderate control situations
leader-member exchange theory
leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers, these are people the leader trusts, get a disproportionate amount of his or her time and special privileges, people are classified as in or out. In people have attitude and personality similar to the leader's or a higher level of competence
Path-Goal Theory
a contingency model of leadership that extracts key elements from the ohio state leadership research on the initiating structure and consideration and the expectancy theory of motivation.
essence of path-goal theory
it is the leaders job to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide the direction or support or both needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives or the group or organization. - leaders clarify the path to help their followers achieve their goals
leaders behavior is acceptable ⬦
to subordinates to the degree it is a source of immediate satisfaction or future satisfaction
leaders behavior is motivational⬦
to the degree that it makes subordinate need satisfaction to perform and provides coaching , guidance, support and rewards
directive leader
lets subordinates know what is expected of them
supportive leader
is friendly and shows concerns for the needs of subordinates
participative leader
consults with subordinates and uses their suggestions before making decisions
achievement-oriented leader
sets challenging goals and expects subordinates to perform at their highest level
path-goal theory implies ⬦
that the same leader can be directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented
path-goal: positive influence of leader
employee performance and satisfaction are likely to be positively influenced when the leader compensates for things lacking in the employee or work setting
path-goal: negative influence of leader
leader who spends time explaining tasks to employees who do not need that are seen as redundent or even insulting
Leader-participation model
by vroom and yetton, related leadership behavior and participation in decision making - model provided a set of rules that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making as determined by different types of situations - developed a computer program to guide managers
transactional leadership
guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
charismatic/transformational leaders
inspires followers to transcend their own self interests for the good of the organization and who is capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on his or her followers. They are vision and articulation, personal rish, environmental sensitivity, sensitivity to follower needs, unconventional behavior
bad side of charismatic leaders
can potentially undermine organizations - jim jones, ego driven, surround themselves with YES people, cross ethical lines
Ethical leadership
address the means a leader uses in trying to achieve goals . . . We should consider both the means used by the leader to achieve his or her goals and the moral content of those goals
cross cultural leadership
leaders must adapt their style to different national culture
neutralize the effect of the leader
characteristics of subordinates - experience, training, professional orientation or need for independence can neutralize the effect of leadership.
a positive expectation that another will not , through words, actions, or decisions - act opportunistically
inherent risk and vulnerability in any trusting relationship
positive expectation
assumes knowledge and familiarity about the other party
key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust
integrity-honesty and truthfulness, competence-technecal and interpersonal knowledge and skills, consistency-reliablity, predictability, and good judgement, loyalty-willingness to protect and sace face for another person, openness-willingness to give the whole truth
linking trust to leadership
Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership, if people are to willingly follow a leader, be it into battle or the boardroom, there must be the perception of trust
three types of trust
deterrence based trust-the most fragile relationships, one violaion can destroy the trust - trust lies in the authority held by the boss and the punishment he can impose, knowledge based trust-relies on information rather than deterrence, comes from a history of interaction, identification based trust-emotional connection - husband/wife.
build trust
practice openness, be fair, speak your feelings, tell the truth, show consistency, fulfull your promises, maintain confidences, demonstrate competence
leadership role in OB
leader provides the direction toward goal attainment
people who have it - deny it, people who want it, try not to appear to be seeking it, those who are good at getting it are secretitve about how they got it - it is the capacity that A has influence over the behavior of B
Formal Power
leader ship position - reward power - dependent on fear, reward power- opposite of coercive power; legitimate power - formal authority, informational power - acess to and control over information
Coercive power
dependent on fear
personal power
power that comes from an individuals unique characteristics - expert power - results of skills or knowledge, referent power-based on wanting to be or be like a person who has desirable resources or personal traits; chaismatic power-extention of referent power stemming rom an individuals personality
general dependency postulate
the greater B's dependency on A, the greater power A has over B
what creates dependency
it is increased when the resource you control is important, scarce, and nonsubstitutable
power in groups
sexual harassment
environment would resonably be perceived and is perceived as hostile or abusive, concept of power is central to understanding sexual harassment.
when power is converted into actions
Political behavior
those activites that are not required as part of ones formal role in the organization, but that influence or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within an organization
individual factors to political behavior
high self monitors, internal locus of control and high need for power
organizational factors to political behavior
resources are declining, pattern of resources are changing, promotions or advancement opportunities
bad side of politics
decreased job satisfaction, increased anxiety and stress, increased turnover, reduced performance
defensive behaviors of politics
percieve politics as a threat: AVOIDING ACTION: overconforming, buck passing, playing dumb, stretching, stalling; AVOIDING BLAME: buffing (covering your rear), playing safe, justifying, scapegoating, misrepresenting; AVOIDING CHANGE: prevention, self-protection
impression mangement
process by which individuals atttempt to control the impressions of others: self-description, conformity, accounts, apologies, acclaiming, flattery, favors

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