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ENGL 361

Terms for English 361 (History of English Language) Test 2


undefined, object
copy deck
Where we got our alphabet
St. Augustine brought Latin alphabet to England. Runic alphabet was also integrated. Because Irish Christian
form taken by future tense in OE
present tense + adverbs
First inhabitants of Britain speaking IE language.
Change made by CGmc to case structure of IE
In Germanic, the ablative & locative fell together with the dative case. Instrumental survived into early OE. Vocative
When OE inverted subject/verb order
1. to ask a question 2. negative 3. adverbial expressions
dental preterite
the past tense form of words that end in /d/ or /t/
Difference in basis of syllabic accent in IE and CGmc
IE had pitch-based stress. Old English had loudness-based stressed.
object of verb, adverbial expression of time and space
Oldest Germanic language for which we have texts.
preterite-present verb
in OE, a verb whose tense was originally past
Date of first Germanic invasion of Britain.
449 AD
How many verb classes in IE?
Date Viking raids began.
Sources of Borrowed vocabulary in OE
Latin, Celtic, Old Norse
Ablaut Series
an ablaut is a change in a vowel caused by stress or accent. In an ablaut series, changes in vowels of roots indicate
synthetic language
relationships expressed by inflections
Two of three tribes of Germanic invaders of Britain.
1. Angles 2. Saxons 3. Jutes
Dark Ages
Five non-IE languages.
Turkish, Arabic, Hebrew, Finnish, Hungarian
One sound lost from OE to PDE
long consonants
meeting between tribal leaders to discuss Christianity
variations on the form of a word to indicate change in meaning or grammatical relationships.
Classes of words used more frequently in PDE than OE because of movement from inflectional to isolating language
function words, prepositions, conjunctions
Distinction added by CGmc to adjective declensions of IE.
adjectives could take comparative or superlative forms.
grammatical relationships expressed with separate words
two syntactic differences between OE & PDE.
OE was inflected, so syntax was relatively loose. Adjective/noun order could be reversed. No noun adjuncts.
nominative case
subject or subject compliment
Approximate dates of Indo-European as a living language
Approx date of CGmc as living language.
100 BC
New class of verbs added by CGmc to IE.
weak verbs
grammatical case used in inflecting languages for direct objects or objects of prepositions
Date of Christianization in England.
597 AD
2 classes of words used more frequently in PDE than in OE
prepositions, conjunctions, articles
object of preposition, indirect object of verb
Date of Roman departure from Britain.
410 AD

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