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Anthropology 100 Language


undefined, object
copy deck
ex. uh-oh, well, uh
voice segregates
indicate power of who we are speaking to, we evaluate people based on how they speak
vertical dialects
codes, rules, structure
a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups
focal vocabulary
significant units of sound (consonants and vowels), significant sound contrast used to determine meaning, as in minimal pairs, all languages use approx. 50 phonemes, implies there was an origin language
how that language conveys its message, through form classes, syntax, etc.`
surface structuer
languages developed out of the same parent language; ex. French and Spanish both daughters of Latin
daughter languages
words can change meaning, belong to different categories (verbs, nouns, adjectives), english doesn't change according to different situations
form classes
the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences, organization of morphemes so that they are logically coherent
being able to hear individual words instead of just a string of sounds
duality of patterning
communication acts
voice qualifiers like laughing, crying (these are universal)
language ancestral to several daughter languages
tracing language families by looking for common vocabulary features (core vocabularies), used to trace origins of groups and their imigrations
vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning
proxemics, kinesics, paralanguage, vocalizations, voice segregates
the gesture-call system
study of communication through gesture, body posture, etc. many of these traits are inherited and shared with our primate ancestors
nessage that needs to be conveyed, relationship between the ideas being expressed
deep structure
connections between words and meanings
transmitting information by any means
transmitted and acquired through traditions and social context
traditional transmisson
the frames around words: pitch, voice, qualities, rhythm
productivity, duality of patterning, displacement, arbitrariness, traditional transmission
design features of language
language has unlimited messages that can be conveyed
ability to talk about events or agents that are not in the present or immediate environment
how people use space to convey messages
created by Benjamin Lee Whorf and Edward Sapir. Believed that languages embody models of the world, influence the way hearers and speakers understand existence of self. It developed out of the discovery that Hopi has no tenses, english emphasizes time and extreme opposites. Example: drum filled with flammable material
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
auditory and visual centres allow us to bypass endocrine and hormonal repsonses so that we can create symbols between what we see and what we hear
organization of the brain
units of meaning ex. dog has one morpheme, dogs has two, includes suffixes and prefixes
humans are the only species whose larynx moves after birth, it moves lower as you get older to prevent food going down the windpipe and allows for a greater variety of sound
origins of language
study of language in social context; speech acts, language and power

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