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Psychology 101 Final Exam Terms


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series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state
self report
well researched clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems
Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI)
standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individuals personality
projective techniques
personality test in which individual interpretations of he meanings of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a responders inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
Rorschach Inkblot Test
projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people
Thematic Apperception Test
relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way
traits of the 5 factor model:conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience and extroversion
Big 5
personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness, motives that can produce emotional disorders
psychodynamic approach
an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories the person\'s deepest instincts and desires, and the persons inner struggle to control these forces
dynamic consciousness
things present in the mind
events memories that could be brought to consciousness
thoughts feeling, memories, and other information not easily brought into consciousness
part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source of our bodily needs wants, desires, and impulses particular of our sexual and aggressive drives
psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse
pleasure principle
component of personality developed through contact with the external world that enables us to deal with life\'s practical demands
regulating mechanism that enables the individual to delay gratifying immediate needs and function effectively in the real world
reality principle
mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority
unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses
coping mechanisms
defense mechanism that involves supplying reasonable sounding explanations for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal(mostly from oneself) one\'s underlying motives or feelings
defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggeration of their opposite (example: overly sucking up to someone you hate)
reaction formation
defense mechanism that involves attributing one\'s own threatening feelings, motives or impulses to another person or group
defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development
defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative example: taking out your anger on someone else
defense mechanism that helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us to unconsciously take on the characteristics of another
defense mechanism that involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable ad culturally enhancing activities
distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasure from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures
psychosexual stages
phenomenon in which a person\'s pleasure seeking drives become psychologically stuck or arrested at a particular psychosexual stage
stage during which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed
oral stage
- experience is dominated by pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine and toilet training - 1 to 3 years old
anal stage
experience is dominated by the pleasure conflict and frustration associated with the phallic genital area as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict
phallic stage
child\'s conflicting feelings toward the opposite sex parent are usually resolved by identifying with the same sex parent
Oedipus Conflict
-primary focus is development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal and athletic skills - ages 6 to 12 or until puberty
latency stage
- time for coming together of the adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner -sexual feelings reawakened
genital stage
the conceptualization of psychological abnormalities as diseases that, like biological diseases, have symptoms and causes and possible cures
medical model
classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other similar problems
co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
diathesis-stress model
class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature
anxiety disorder
characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance
generalized anxiety disorder
disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations
phobic disorders
disorder that involves and irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual\'s ability to function
specific phobia
disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed
social phobia
idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears
preparedness theory
disorder characterized by sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror
panic disorder
extreme fear of venturing into public places
disorder in which obsessive, repetitive intrusive thoughts interfere significantly with an individuals functioning
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature - two main forms (bipolar and schizophrenia)
mood disorders
characterized by a severly depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and a lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disorders
major depressive disorder
same bodily and cognitive problems present in depression but are less sever and longer lasting, persisting for at least 2 years
moderately depressed mood that persists for at least 2 years and is punctuated by periods of major depression
double depression
recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern
season affective disorder
depression following childbirth due to changing hormone balances
postpartum depression
individuals prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal, stable , and global
helplessness theory
unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal persistent high mood(mania) and low mood (depression
bipolar disorder
disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion, and disturbances in thought, motivation and behavior
patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in a spite of its irrationality
false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation
severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic
disorganized speech
behavior that is innappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals often with specific motor disturbances
grossly disorganized behavior
marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity
catatonic behavior
emotional and social withdrawl, apathy, poverty of speech, and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion
negative symptoms
the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity
dopamine hypothesis
emotional involvement (intrusiveness) and excessive criticism direxted towards the former patient by his or her family
expressed emotion
characterized by deep ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning
personality disorders
pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in early childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood
antisocial personality disorder
an interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem
treatment that draws on techniques form different forms of therapy depending on the client and the problem
eclectic psychotherapy
explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems
psychodynamic psychotherapies
-developed by Freud - form of therapy that emphasizes the role of uncovering unconscious desires to develop insights into their psychological problems
client reports everything that flits through the mind without censorship or filtering
free association
a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material
psychoanalyst seeks out latent content of dream, sometimes by free association
dream analysis
process by which the psychoanalyst/therapist deciphers the underlying meanings of what the client says or does
therapist suggest and interpretation that is absurd and uses the patients reaction to determine if the proposition is accurate
analysis of resistance
occurrence when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the clients life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies
- form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships - originally developed as a brief treatment for depression
Interpersonal Psychotherapy
assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors
behavior therapy
involves using positive punishment to reduce the frequency of an undesirable behavior
aversion therapy
form of behavior therapy in which clients are given \"token\" for desired behaviors, which they can later trade for rewards
token economy
confronting an emotion arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response
exposure theory
a procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles of his or her body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations
systematic desensitization
form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world
cognitive therapy
involves teaching clients to questions the automatic beliefs, asumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs
cognitive restructuring
-blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies -structured, transparent, flexible
cognitive behavioral therapy
form of cognitive therapy that teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment, to be aware of his or her thoughts, feeling, and sensations and to detect symptoms before they become a problem
mindfulness meditation
an approach to therapy that assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist
person centered therapy
behavior whose purpose is to harm another
principle stating that people aggress when their goals are thwarted
frustration aggression principle
behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit
behavior that benefits another without benefitting oneself
the process by which evolution selects for genes that causes individuals to provide benefits to their relatives
kin selection
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
reciprocal altruism
collection of two or more people who believe they have something in common
positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
human category of which a person is a member
when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
people expend less effort when in a group than alone
social loafing
act of helping strangers in an emergency situation
bystander intervention
occurs when individual feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
diffusion of responsibility
tendency for a group\'s initial leaning to get stronger over time
group polarization
the control of one person\'s behavior by another
social influence
learning that occurs when one person observes another person being rewarded or punished
observational learning
customary standards for behavior is influenced by another\'s because the latter provides information about what is appropriate
normative influence
the norm that people should benefit those who have benefited them
norm of reciprocity
customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a cuture
strategy that uses reciprocation concessions to influence behavior
door in the face technique
tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it
the tendency to do what authorities tell us to do simply because they tell us to do it
enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event
an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event
a phenomenon whereby a person\'s behavior is influenced by another persons behavior because the latter provides information about what is good or true
Information Influence

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