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LINA01 - Intro to Linguistics


undefined, object
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List the places of articulation
1. bilabial
2. labiodental
3. interdental
4. alveolar
5. alveo-palatal
6. palatal
7. velar
8. glottal

List the manners of articulation
1. stop
2. nasal stop
3. fricative
4. affricate
6. glides
7. liquids

High front vowels
high front tense unrounded: i beet
high front lax unrounded: ɪ bit
mid front vowels
tense unrounded e bait
lax unrounded É› bet
low front vowels
lax unrounded æ bat
mid central
lax unrounded ə (about) ʌ (but)
high back
tense rounded u boot
lax rounded ÊŠ book
middle back
tense rounded o boat
lax rounded É” bore, sword
low back
tense unrounded É‘ father
List the stop consonants
bilabial p, b
alveolar t, d
velar k, g
glottal Ê”

List the nasal stop consonants
bilabial m
alveolar n
velar Å‹

List the fricative consonants
labiodental f, v
interdental θ, ð
alveolar s, z
alveopalatal ʃ, ʒ
glottal h

List the affricate consonants
alveopalatal tʃ, dʒ
List the glide consonants
labiovelar w, ʍ
List the liquid consonants
voiced lateral l
voiced retroflex r
voiced flap ɾ

What is linguistics?
The scientific study of human language.

Study the human mind through language.

Why study language?
“to understand the nature of the human mind”
Linguistic competence/performance
competence ~= mental grammar
performance ~= how a person actually speaks. Utilizes a native speaker’s judgement about “grammaticality” of a sentence
Both are not the same; one may have ling competence but poor perf

Grammar in the sense of linguistics?
mental grammar; linguist’s grammar (model of the mental grammar)
head grammar, linguistic competence

What evidence do we have that language is rule governed (systematic)?
we have unconscious knowledge of patterns to use
Prescriptive vs. descriptive rules/grammar
how people should vs how they do speak
prescriptive typically states what people should do, descriptive states what they do

Why are linguists descriptivists and not prescriptivists?
prescriptive has command verbs (should, must, etc), descriptive just states pattern of behaviour
linguists want to build a model of mental grammar so they’re tilted towards descriptivism since they want to know what people actually do


signifier: form of sign
signified: referred concept
iconic: visual representation of actual concept/object
symbolic: arbitrary, does not resemble signified object, cultural context allows understanding
language is symbolic

How does the idea of signs (signifier, signified, iconic, symbolic) apply to language?
words are symbolic (they don’t resemble the object at all)
Onomatopoeia are arguably iconic. (Though they do mostly seem arbitrary anyway)

Are all languages rule-governed (examples of rules, evidence for rules)? Are there languages or dialects that do not have rules (a grammar)?

1. Yes. How nouns are made to their plural form in English is an example.
2. No.
What counts as a “mistake”? Explain how even from a descriptive perspective, it is possible for a native speaker of a language to make a mistake in speech or writing.
How does this notion of “making a mistake” differ from that used in prescrip
when one’s linguistic performance does not match their linguistic competence.
native speaker might understand eng and its rules well, but their actual usage/performance does not match their knowledge of its rules.
prescriptive merely states that performance does not match some strict objective set of rules defined for a language. mental competence + performance may match up, but performance still does not match some set standard by prescriptivist

Productivity (How does the rule-governed nature of language help to explain productivity?)
Ability to create new sentences. Proof: think recursive sentences.
Rules dictate how productivity forms new sentences; constrains it. provides set of rules to abide to

Units and levels of linguistic representation
articulatory feature,
phone (=speech sound),

articulatory feat: manner/place of artic, voicing
phoneme: mental representation of a sound or a series of sounds
phone: representation of a sound
morpheme: smallest linguistic unit w/ meaning/grammatical function (re-, start, -able, -ing). Minimal pairing of sound and meaning
word: freestanding unit of meaning
phrase: smallest unit of a sentence composed of word/s
sentence: syntactic category of expressions; composed of NP+(Aux)+VP

Transcribe a word!
Check for correctness here:
phonological processes?
Assimilation: Make it sound more like neighbours.
- devoicing of l and r in please and proud respectively.

Dissimilation: Make it sound less similar than neighbours.
- fifth -> fifts

Epenthesis: Insertion of sounds
- “something” -> “sompthing”
- “length” -> “lengkth”

Metathesis: Reordering of sounds
- ask -> aks

Deletion: Some sounds go *poof*
- “suppose” -> “spose”
- “memory” -> “memry”

What are Phonemes and allophones?
Differentiate between distribution statements and rules.
Phonemes -> discovered through minimal pair tests.
- Uses phonemic representation in ‘/ / ’

Allophones of the same phoneme: predictable variants of a phoneme. Tend to be in complementary distribution (vs contrastive distribution).
- Uses phonetic representation in ‘[ ]’

Complementary distribution statement: two part.
- [devoiced l] (use ipa symbol pls) occurs after voiceless stops.
- [l] occurs elsewhere.

Distribution statements describe where differing sounds occur in the data.
Rules hypothesize how phonemes change in a specific environment.

Syllable structure letter classification
nucleus: vowel/syllabic liquid/nasal
onset: consonants before nucleus
coda: consonant after nucleus

rhyme: nucleus + coda

Sonority Principle, Maximum Onset Principle
Sonority principle: sonority must rise before and fall after nucleus
4 heights (tallest to shortest
- vowel (aeiou)
- liquids+glides (w, l)
- nasals
- fricatives
- stops (k, t)
Note exception to [s], which does not follow the sonority principle.

Maximum Onset Principle: syllables like to hog all the onset characters, instead of giving it to the coda of the previous syllable. Sonority principle takes precedence.

Syllable structure tree time!
Draw them.
I said draw em!
Phonotactics, accidental gaps, systematic gaps
phonotactics: knowing which sounds are combinable
accidental gaps: meaningless words that follow all phonological rules
systematic gaps: systematic “gaps” (false words) determined by grammar

Natural classes of sounds
Obstruents: airstream fully or partially obstructed. stops, fricatives, affricates.
Sonorants: High acoustic energy; relatively free airflow. nasals, liquids, glides
Coronals: Tongue is raised upwards towards the alveolar ridge or hard palate. alveolars, alveopalatal, palatals
Anteriors: Front part of the mouth is used to pronounce. bilabials, labiodentals, interdentals, alveolars.
Sibilants: Air creates friction in mouth -> hissing sound.

What is morphology? a morpheme?
Morphology: Study of internal structure of words + rules and processes in which words are formed.
Morpheme: Smallest linguistic unit that carries a meaning/grammatical function.

What is a word?
Composed of one or more morphemes.
Freestanding unit of meaning.
What are content words and function words? How are they related to open/closed classes?
Content words are open class. Include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs.
Function words are closed class. Conjunctions, prepositions, articles, pronouns, auxiliary verbs.

Open classes accept the addition of new morphemes (words), through such processes as compounding, derivation, inflection, coining, and borrowing; closed classes generally do not.

What are Free / bound morphemes?
Free morphemes can stand by itself as an independent word.
Bound morphemes cannot stand by itself and must be attached to another one to form a word.
Combination of free morphemes and bound morphemes follows a rule. (ungrammatical combinations exist)

Explain Affix, prefix, suffix, circumfix, infix
Affix: Bound morphemes that change the syntactic function of the words they attach to.

prefix: before the root
suffix: After the root
infix: split the root word, and insert.
circumfix: around the root word (both sides)

What is a root in morphology?
A free morpheme that has the principal meaning of a word when attached to other morphemes.
What is a Bound root in morphology?
A bound root is when the root carries no meaning apart from the word in which they are found. (I.e. cran in cranberry)
What is a Stem in morphology?
Any form that an affix attaches to (stem may already be complex)
What is the Lexicon, lexical entry in morphology?
Mental dictionary of form (pronunciation) to meaning for words.
Lexicon + morphological rules -> output. Form words like unhappy and unhappiness.

What are Homonyms?
different morphologies, same ipa translations
Morphemes that are spelt the same, but have different meanings.
What are ambiguous words?
words w/ multiple morpheme trees
What is a morphological rule? Can you generate one?
re- + V -> V (redo whatever the verb means)
re-: specify that it is a prefix.
+ V: Specify that it attaches to a verb.
= V: Specify that the output is a verb.
Then specify the meaning of the output word.

Not all morphological processes involve the addition of a fixed form morpheme; this means that you need to be able to state a generalization/rule about how the final form of the word is pronounced (e.g., in cases of reduplication or suppleti
Allomorphy: be able to describe properties that condition the use of a particular allomorph, what it means if you are asked for the conditioning environment of an allomorph
Allomorphs of a morpheme, analogous to allophones of phoneme. Different pronunciations of the same morpheme.
Phologically conditioned: Their pronunciations must be related.
Derivation vs. inflection (what are the differences between derivation and inflection?)
creates/derives new word+changes speech type vs producing diff form of same word
ex. inflectional affixes (s, ed, ing, en, s, ‘s)

Word formation processes (e.g., inflection, derivation, compounding, suppletion, reduplication, conversion, clipping, blending, backformation, acronym, initialism, coinage, eponyms)
derivation: changes/derives new words + changes speech type (e.g. un-, -y, -th)
inflection: produces diff form of same word (e.g. adding -s, -ed, -in)

compounding: combination of 2+ free morphemes; meaning is not transparently derived.
- head: morpheme that determines lexical category
- types:
- endocentric: subtype of concept indicated by head
- retains irregular plural form of head
- exocentric: head is not what determines compound’s meaning category
- follows standard plural formation rule

suppletion: replacement of morpheme for diff morpheme for grammatical contrast
reduplication: repeats some/part of stem; used for intensification
conversion: existing word is assigned diff category (ie noun->verb, adj -> v, etc)
clipping: shortening of a word/phrase (professor -> prof)
blending: word made of subsections of other words (e.g. brunch, motel)
back-formation: removal of affix (real or not) from existing word to create new one (editor -> edit)
acronym: you should know this. pronounces initials as one word
initialism: see acronym, except you pronounce initials letter by letter (ie unicef vs utsc)
coinage: just new words
eponyms: words from names

Differences between compounds and non-compound phrases (stress placement, meanings, etc.)
phrase has emphasis on last morpheme, compound has emphasis on first morpheme
meaning transparently derived from phrases, not so much from compounds
What is syntax?
study of the structure of phrases and sentences.
Rules - operate independent of meaning. (grammatically correct, but nonsensical sentences)
Hierarchical structure

How context can affect meaning - how we convey meaning beyond the literal meaning of the words spoken.
Direct vs indirect sentences
Direct -> Clear link to their meaning.
Indirect -> Ty to elict an action or response by appealing to listener's inferences or context.
Conclusions drawn based upon our knowledge of how convo works.
Not appropriate for the context in which it is uttered.
Grice maxims
People comply with a general principle of cooperation.

Maxim of Quality

Maxim of Relevance
Maxim of Quantity
Maxim of Manner

Maxims of quality
Don't say what you believe to be false, or for things you lack adequate evidence.
Maxim of relevance
Conversation is relevant to topic set.
Maxims of Quantity
Make contribution and informative as possible, yet not over informative.
Maxims of Manner
Avoid obscurity of expression and ambibuity.
Be brief and orderly.

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