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ap english words to know


undefined, object
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to use a character or story symbolically to make statement about human existence
direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably known. i.e. hitler, the bible, the north star...
the noun referred to by a pronoun
the use of slang or casual writing
strict dictionary definition

related to style of an author. refers to word choices. especially correctness, clearness or effectiveness
literally means teaching. didactic works have the aim of teaching or instructing, especially moral principles
less offensive substitute for something uncooth
generic conventions
traditions for each genre. for example, op ed vs. memoir
major categories: prose, poetry, drama. within these broad boundaries, it can be divided further. prose: fiction, non-fiction. poetry: lyric, dramatic (?) narrative and epic, etc... drama: tragedy, melodrama, farce, etc...
literally means sermon, but basically includes any talk, speech or lecture including moral or spiritual advice
figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration. ex. harvey "the best sports program in the world!"
uses terms related to the five senses. broader level, imagery can represent more than one thing. rose can be a flower while being the color in a cheek.
emotional violent attack using emotionally violent language
the difference between what is stated and what is meant. difference between what appears to be and what is true. three types: verbal irony (the words literally state the opposite of the writer or speakers true meaning) situational irony (events turn out to be the opposite of what is expected. what the readers and characters think ought to happen is not what does happen) dramatic irony (facts or events unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but know to the reader or other characters)
loose sentence
a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first followed by a dependent grammatical unit.
comparison of unlike things or substitution of one for the other. does not use like. "she was a ray of sunshine)
substitute of one object for another closely associated with it. example, a new release that claims "the white house declared" rather than the president declared
a self-contained sentence that is seemingly contradictory, but upon closer inspection, has validity to it. ex. Fair is foul, and foul is fair.
parallelism. parallel structure
grammatical or rhetorical phrasing of words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs to give structural similarity. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times. It was the the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness.
also, I came, I saw, I conquered.
basically repeating and comparing for emphasis.

an adjective that describes words or phrases that are overly bookish or scholarly
periodic sentence
a sentence that presents its main claus at the end of the sentence. ex. Ecstatic with my AP scores, I let out a shout of joy.
predicate adjectives
group of adjectives used to describe on noun. follows a linking verb (is, are, am...)
ex. My boyfriend is tall, dark and handsome.
predicate nominative
a group of nouns or noun clause that renames the subject. it also follows a linking verb and is located in the predicate of the sentence.
ex. Abe Lincoln was a man of integrity.
the predicate nominative is man of integrity, as it renames abe lincoln.

describes principals governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently and effectively.
rhetorical question
the answer is assumed
greek meaning: to tear flesh. bitter and caustic, meant to hurt someone
a work that targets human vices and follies or social institution or conventions for social reform or ridicule. best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing.
description, comparing two things, uses if, as or like.
one authors blending of diction, syntax and all that or a classification of authors.
subject complement.
the word with any accompanying phrases that follows a linking verb and complements or completes the subject of the sentence by 1. renaming it. or 2. describing it. the former is technically a predicate nominative, the latter a predicate adjective. usually used in a multiple choice question.
subordinate clause
same as dependent clause.
from greek "for reckoning together" syllogism or syllogistic reasoning is a deductive system of formal logic. it presents two premises, the first on called major and the second minor. major premise: "all men are mortal" minor premise: "socrates is a man" conclusion: "socrates is mortal" the conclusion is valid only if each of the two premises is valid. they can also do either the minor or the major first.
three categories: natural symbols (dawn, rose, tree...) conventional symbols (a cross or star of david, flag or eagle, skull and crossbones...) literary symbols (whale in moby dick, jungle in heart of darkness...)
similar to mood, tone expresses attitude toward his or her material, the audience or both.
a word or phrase that links different ideas, used especially, although not exclusively, in expository or argumentative writing.
intellectual position or emotion regarding subject of writing. be prepared to describe more than one per piece.
concrete detail
basically quotes or experience if a personal essay. actual. not opinion.
descriptive detail
look for the writers sensory description.
the figures of speech, syntax, diction and other stylistic elements.
concentrate on how elements o language work to form a whole.
narrative devices
the tools of the story teller (also used in nonfiction) such as ordering events to build to a climax or withholding info till a crucial or appropriate moment when revealing it creates a desired effect.
narrative technique
the style of telling the story. concentrate on order of events and detail to evaluate the writers technique.
persuasive devices
when asked to analyze an authors persuasive devices, look for words in the passage that have strong connotations. words that intensify the emotional effect. in addition, analyze how these words complement the writers argument as it builds logically.
resources of language
all devices of composition available to a writer. diction, syntax, sentence structure and figures of speech. cumulative effect of the work is made by the resources of language the writer chooses.
rhetorical features.
refers to how a passage is constructed. if asked to consider the rhetorical structure, look at the passages organization and how the writer combines, images details or arguments to serve his or he purpose.
stylistic devices
note and analyze all elements of language that contribute to style, diction, syntax, tone, attitude, figures of speech, connotations and repetition.
a terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or moral principle. can be a memorable summation of the authors point. "I think, therefore, I am"
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction such as liberty of love.
extended metaphor
occurring at great length, occurring throughout a work
figurative language
not meant to literal meaning. usually imaginative and vivid
point of view
third person. omniscient and limited omniscient. omniscient is god like, knows all about every character. limited omniscient knows all about one characters, and just the actions of others.
rhetorical modes
sometimes referred to as modes of discourse. exposition (explaining and analyzing information by presenting idea and evidence and appropriate discussion) argumentation (trying to convince someone. persuasion is trying to get them to do something) description (engages in 5 senses) narration (tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. frequently uses tools of descriptive writing)

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