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COM 400


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equipment may wear out, information gatherers may become inconsistent
instrumentation, or instrument decay
subjects who achieve either a very high or very low score on a test tend to regress to the sample or population mean during future tests
statistical regression
TRUE OR FALSE: Testing extremes is a good idea.
occurs when subjects drop out of a test over time
experimental mortality
because many studies use two or more sample groups, they must be basically the same
sample selection
questions used to verify subjects responses; asks questions in different ways
bias can enter through mistakes in observation, data recording, mathemetical computations, and interpretations
experimenter bias
subjects may answer in a way they think is normal
evaluation apprehension
to show cause and effect of variables the researcher must establish that one happened first
causal time order
when the study is done to different groups at different times, information may be leaked
diffusion or imitation of treatments
sometimes individuals in a control group work harder because they are deprived of something. to avoid this, contrasting groups are often used
control group subjects may lose interest because they are not in the experimental group
one a basic research idea has been chosen, the next step is to ensure the topic has _____
one of eight question to determine topic merit: is the topic too _____?
one of eight questions to determine topic merit: can the problem really be _______?
one of eight question to determine topic merit: can the data be ______?
one of eight questions used to determine topic merit: is the problem _______?
one of eight questions used to determine topic merit: can the results of the study be ________?
one of eight questions used to determine topic merit: what _____ and ______ are involved in the analysis?
costs, time
one of eight questions used to determine topic merit: is the ______ _______ appropriate to the project?
plan approach
how well the results of a study can be generalized across ppoulations, settings and times
external validity
Cook and Campbell: 1. Use ______ samples
Cook and Campbell: Use _______ samples and ________ the study several times
heterogeneous, repeat
Cook and Campbell: Select a sample _________ of the group to which the results will be generalized
Cook and Campbell: Conduct research over a _______ period of time
four types of replication
literal replication
operational replication
instrumental replication
constructive replication

involves the exact replication of the previous analysis
literal replication
attempts to replicate only the sampling and experimental procedures of a previous analysis
operaional replication
attempts to duplicate the dependent measures used in a previous study and to vary the experimental conditions of the original study
instrumental replication
tests the validy of methods used previously by deliberately NOT imitating the earlier study; tries to find if the fact in the previous study can be found with a completely different kind of study
constructive replication
full-service research supplier participates in:
the design of a study
supervises data collection
tabulates the data and analyzes the results

field supplies usually specialize in:
conducting phone interviews
mail intercepts
one on one interviews
recruting respondents

describes how easy it is to find a qualified respondent for a study
percentage of contacts reached out of all contacts made
gross incidence
number of respondents who actually participate in a study
net incidence
equal interval scales, typically used to measure an attitude, interval level scale
Thurstone Scales
AKA scalogram analysis,items are ranged along a continuum that each successive item is more extreme
Guttman Scale
most commonly used scales in mass communication aka summated rating approach
likert scales
used to measure the meaning an item has to an individual; bi-polar adjectives are used: pleasant vs. unpleasant
semantic differential scales
test is ______ if it consistently gives the same results
if a test is ______, it is consistent at different points in time
involves examining the items for consistency in a scale
internal consistency
scores on odd numbers should correlate with even numbers
split-half reliability
assesses the relative correlation between two tests measuring the same concept; difficult to develop parrallel ratings forms
cross-test reliability
when two or more coders judge the same content, used in content analysis
intercoder reliability
measuring device is examined to see if it is valid on the face of it
face validity
substituting other words or concepts for another word
constitutive definition
specifies procedures that allow one to experience or measure a concept
operational definition
statement of fact meant to explain, in concise terms, an action or set of actions that is generally accepted to be true and universal
kind of reliability that says the scores on odd numbers should correlate with even numbers
split-half reliability
this is a method of knowing
probability samples are selected at ________
this method of research surveys the entire population
comparing two tests for reliability
a kind of validity that looks at how well the results of a study can be generalized across populations, settings, and times
external validity
categories of data would represent what kind of data?
a kind of variable that is not discrete
conintuous variable
in regard to guidelines for surveys, you should make questions what?
items are ranged along a continuum so that each successive item is more extreme
Guttman Scale
what level of data would rankings in a beauty pageant?
a kind of research other than public
this level of data has a true zero
one early effect on mass communication research was the magic ______ theory

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