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APUSH Unit 7


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Pan Americanism
In 1881 Secretary of State James G. Blaine advocated the creation of an International Bureau of American Republics to promote a customs union of trade and political stability for the Western Hemisphere.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
A Union naval officer during the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865, he served in the navy for nearly 40 years. He was promoted to the rank of captain in 1885. His book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, received international recognition as a comprehensive of naval strategy.
William Randolph Hearst
Through dishonest and exaggerated reporting, his newspapers whipped up public sentiment against Spain, actually helping to cause the Spanish-American War. He was quite willing to take credit for this, as his New York City newspaper testified in an 1898 headline: "How Do You Like the Journal’s War?"
Homestead Act
This act cut up Western public lands into many small holdings for the free farmers. It was originally started by Andrew Johnson and met strong opposition by Southern Representatives and therefore could not be passed until the secession of the Southern States during the Civil War.
Barbed wire
This was invented and patented by Joseph Glidden in 1874 and had a major impact on the cattle industry of the Western U.S. Accustomed to allowing their cattle to roam the open range, many farmers objected.
Battle of Little Big Horn
The Sioux refused to sell the land to the government in 1875, and refused to leave the area to inhabit reservations. When the Sioux refused, the army under Lieut. Col. Custer, was sent to enforce the order. In this battle the main body of Indians, under Sioux leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, wiped out General Custer's men in 1876.
Chief Joseph
When he became chief of the Nez Perce Indian tribe in the American Northwest in 1871, he led his people in an unsuccessful resistance to white settlers who were confiscating land. The tribe was ordered to move. He agreed, but when three of his tribe killed a group of settlers, he attempted to escape to Canada with his followers.
Ghost Dance Movement
As the Sioux population dwindled as a result of the federal government policies, they spiritualism to restore their original dominance on the Plains. They engaged in rituals that they believed would protect them from harm. The ritual allowed them to reaffirm their culture amidst the chaos.
Battle of Wounded Knee
Convinced that Sitting Bull was going to lead an uprising, the United States Army massacred more than 200 Indians on Dec. 29, 1890. After the incident, the Ghost Dance movement which had been recently revived by Indians rapidly died out. This event ended the conquest of the American Indian.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A Centuy of Dishonor, was her discourse concerning the plight of American Indians published in 1881. She gathered information regarding American Indians and their lives while serving on a federal commission investigating the treatment of Indians. She also wrote Ramona concerning the same topic.
It was designed to reform what well-meaning but ignorant whites perceived to be the weaknesses of Indian life-- the lack of private property, the absence of a Christian based religion, the nomadic traditions of the Indians, and the general instability in their way of life -- by turning Indians into farmers. The main point of the law was to emphasize treating Indians as individuals as opposed to members in a tribe.
Safety Valve Thesis
This assertion stated that as immigrants came to the eastern United States during the late nineteenth century and "polluted" American culture, citizens of the U.S. would have the West as a place to which they could go in order to revitalize their pure Americanism.
Comstock Lode
This was one of the richest silver mines in the United States. It was discovered in 1859 at the Comstock Lode in Nevada. This discovery contributed to the speed by which Virginia City, Nevada was built. An influx of settlers came to Nevada, and Nevada granted statehood in 1864.
This leader of the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, fought against the white man, who was trying to force the Apaches off of their land. He had an enormous hatred for the whites. He was, however, eventually pushed into Mexico where he surrendered.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
The United States recognized the Black Hills of Dakota as part of the Sioux reservation. The Sioux held the Black Hills as sacred.
William Cody
He was contracted to supply food for the transcontinental railroad workers and claimed to kill 4,280 buffalo in seventeen months to feed the workers. Later worked as a scout but found the work too unexciting. He later received world wide acclaim with his Wild West Show.
Frederic Remington
He was an American painter, illustrator, and sculptor who specialized in depictions of the American West. He is one of Mr. Ballinger’s favorite artists.
Albert Beverage
This progressive Senator was known as a compelling orator, delivering speeches supporting territorial expansion by the U.S. and increasing the power of the federal government. He believed that the Americans must civilize Asia and the pacific which would also benefit our economy.
Teddy Roosevelt’s handpicked unit in the Spanish American War. A truly American crew of cowboys, scholars, land speculators, Native Americans and African Americans, they can be considered one of our first special forces.
Yellow Journalism
: A type of journalism in which sensationalism triumphs over factual reporting. This may take such forms as the use of colorful adjectives, exaggeration, a careless lack of fact-checking for the sake of a quick "breaking news" story, or even deliberate falsification of entire incidents.
This is a term describing chauvinistic patriotism, especially with regard to a hawkish political stance. In plain language it means bullying other countries. The origin is a British song.

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