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Personality Psychology Chapter 8


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Types vs. traits
TYPE- "either or" Categories that are distinct and discontinuous. Either extravert or introvert.

Traits- "continuum" Traits are regarded as the dimensions of personality on which people vary.
The trait model focuses on
What is unique about the trait model?
it varies on a continuum with NO "0" point.
What is factor analyses?
a glorified correaltional study that aims to figure what traits commonly are present together.
What is R.B Cattell known for?
Factor analyzed a list of nonsynonymous personality adjectives.
what is the purpose of factor analysis?
to statistically reduce information to make it more understandable
Cattell tried to determine the structure of personality...
For his factor analysis Cattell collected these three forms of data...
Q-data- data taken from QUESTIONAIRES.

T-data- data from controlled live TESTS (recording responses)

L-data: information gathered from a person's LIFE.
What were Cattell's findings?
He found 16 personality factors and to test these he created the 16 personality factor questionaire (16PF).
The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought
What did Gordon Allport feel was the most important method of study?
Believed factor analysis could NOT account for all human experience.

He believed above all in IDIOGRAPHIC RESEARCH. He believed extensively studying one person using diaries, interviews, Q-sorts which he believed compensated for the shortcommings of nomothetic methods.
GORDON ALLPORT believed there were two types of traits. What were they and which did he feel should be studied? Why?
Individual traits- traits possessed by an individual

Common traits- traits common to a heritage or culture

Traits that are peculiar to the individual
Personal dispositions
Personal dispositions that exert an overwhelming influence on behavior
Cardinal dispositions
Summarize consistencies in behavior
Only a few traits (5-10)
Central dispositions
Idiosyncrasies such as preferences
Apply to a more specific range of behaviors
Secondary dispositions
The irreducible core of personality that defines who we are

Organizing agent of personality
The proprium (One's self)
The reasons why an individual engages a behavior are not necessarily the same reasons that originally caused him/her to engage in the behavior

Motives in adulthood become independent of their origins in childhood
Functionally autonomous (Allport)
What are the BIG FIVE in the theory of the big five traits of personality?

Openness to experience
What are the three methods of research used to show support for the BIG FIVE?
Cross cultural evidence shows consistancy.

Young and old research

Research with varying education levels.
Implications for career choice
Extroverts tend to be successful as politicians or other high-visibility leaders
Conscientious people do well at work, especially corporate settings
Agreeable (altruistic) people likely try to help others
e.g., nonprofit organizations, clergy, parents
Neurotics can either channel their anxiety into a kind of compulsive success or become reckless behavior
Open (creative and intelligent) people may be drawn to pursuits artists or writers
What are Eysenck's BIG THREE?
Extroversion—outgoingness and assertiveness

Neuroticism—instability and apprehensiveness

Psychoticism—tendency toward psychopathology
What is eysenck's link to biology?
Conducted physiological research to support genetically-based biological personality traits (the big three)
Vocal characteristics, facial expressions, body movements, etc
Expressive style.
Expressive style is often included in what other personality trait?

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