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Psych 216


undefined, object
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sensory memory
the fleeting retention of sights, sounds, and other sensations that have just been experienced
long-term memory
information retained on an enduring basis
working memory
(aka short-term memory) a kind of workspace in which info from sensory memory and long-term memory is brought together, attended to, and processed
sensory memory can hold a __ amount of memory for __
moderate amount; a fraction of a second
working memory: information decays after about __-__seconds
long-term memory has how much capacity store?
executive control function
monitors and directs the interactions among the other components
transforming information for storage in memory
based on cues, locating information in LTM and bringing it to STM
short term memory (STM) has how much capacity?
STM capacity can be increased by __
there are more __ in the LTM than there are in the STM
working memory comprises what 3 systems?
visual-spatial system, verbal system, executive system
visual-spatial system
stores visual info
verbal system
stores auditory info
executive system
manipulates attention and controls action
basic processes
the simplest and most frequently used mental activities (such as encoding)
the process of repeating info over and over to aid memory (a strategy)
selective attention
the process of intentionally focusing on the info that is most relevant to the current goal (a strategy)
age at which strategies generally emerge
between 5 and 8 years
utilization deficiency
the phenomenon that initial uses of strategies do not improve memory as much as later uses
autobiographical memory
explicit memories of events that took place at specific times and places in an individual's personal past
infantile amnesia
the inability of most adults to remember anything of their lives before the age of 3 and little more before the age of 5
grouping semantically related info (same meaning)
3 strategies
rehearsal,organization, elaboration
production deficiency
even when children learn a strategy and can use it effectively, they fail to produce it spontaneously
the ability to screen out irrelevant info increases dramatically between __ and __
6 yrs and adulthood
with age, children get better at __ and __
screening out irrelevant info and choosing where to allocate effort
Chi study showed that __
knowledge has a powerful impact on memory (as great or greater than age)
does STM capacity increase with age?
it's hard to tell because it's hard to separate age from the effects of increased knowledge and experience
avg. age of first memory is __
3.5 yrs.
stages of memory from 0 to 6+ yrs.
0-3 yrs=complete absence
3-6 yrs=fragmentary memories
6+ yrs=coherent, continuous history
generalized knowledge of events, including the elements and the order in which they occur
when does self-recognition emerge?
at 18-24 mos.
children of elaborative mothers __ __
recall more
do women or men generally have an earlier first memory?
longer more detailed memories that pertain to emotion-women or men?
Asians have ___ age of first memory
Asians have less __ memories
at __ mos., there is no gender difference in the amount of emotion discussed by children
at __ mos., girls talk about emotion 3x as much as boys
3 components of moral development
moral reasoning, conscience, behavior
in moral reasoning, younger children (below 6) focus on __ whereas older children (above 6) focus on __
consequences; intentions
overlapping-waves theory
an information-processing approach that emphasizes the variability of children's thinking
sociocultural theories
approaches that emphasize the contribution to children's development of other people and the surrounding culture
guided participation
a process in which more knowledgeable individuals organize activities in ways that allow less knowledgeable people to learn
cultural tools
the innumerable products of human ingenuity that enhance thinking
thought of children as little scientists, trying to understand the world on their own
Vygotsky's view on children
thought of children as social beings, shaped by their cultural contexts
Vygotsky's 3 phases of children's dev. of behavior and problem-solving
1)their behavior is controlled by other people's statements 2)private speech 3)internalized private speech
private speech
children tell themselves what to do out loud
the mutual understanding that people share during communication
joint attention
a process in which social partners intentionally focus on a common referent in the external environment
social referencing
looking to others when unsure
the elementary units of meaningful SOUND used to produce languages
the smallest units of MEANING in a language, composed of one or more phonemes
rules in a language that specify how words from different categories (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) can be combined
pragmatic development
the acquisition of knowledge about how language is used (like tone of voice changes meaning)
metalinguistic knowledge
an understanding of the properties and function of language-that is, an understanding of language as language
critical period
the time during which language develops readily and after which (between age 5 and puberty)it is much much harder
modularity hypothesis
the idea that the human brain contains an innate, self-contained language module that is separate from other aspects of cognitive functioning
the associating of words and meanings
holophrastic period
when children begin using the words in their small productive vocabulary one word at a time
the use of a given word in a broader context than is appropriate (like "dog" for any 4-legged animal)
the strategies that young children enlist in beginning to speak
referential (analytic) style
speech strategy that analyzes the speech stream into individual phonetic elements and words
Vygotsky's view on language
thought is internalized speech and thought originates in large part in statements that parents and other adults make to children
private speech is most prevalent between ages __ and__
4 and 6
sociocultural theorists believe that the foundation of human cognitive development is our ability to establish __
joint attention and social referencing emergence at about the same time at between _ and_ mos.
9 and 15
2 views of role of culture in child development
1)development is the acquisition of culture (Vygotsky)
2)development is embedded in culture (in the center)
a condition in which language functions are severely impaired
Most infants produce their first words between __ and__ mos. of age
10 and 15
productive vocabulary
the words a child is able to say
telegraphic speech
children's first sentences that are generally two-word utterances
2 pieces of evidence that children do learn the grammatical rules of their language
1)word endings; they are able to pluralize nouns and put verbs into the past tense
2)they use the correct irregular forms of words that violate the standard rules (like "men" and "went" as opposed to "mans" and "goed"
speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
collective monologues
young children's talk with one another in which the content of each child's turn has little or nothing to do with what the other child has just said
descriptions of past events that have the basic structure of a story
Nativist view
children are born with an innate knowledge of linguistic rules
universal grammar
a set of highly abstract, unconscious rules that are common to all languages
strongest supporting evidence for Nativist views
the invention of sign language by deaf children with no linguistic input from adults
Interactionist view
virtually everything about language development is influenced by its communicative function
Connectionist view
language development is based on general-purpose learning mechanisms
a type of information processing approach that emphasizes the simultaneous activity of numerous, interconnected processing units
dual representation
the idea that a symbolic artifact must be mentally represented in 2 ways at the same time-both as a real object and as a symbol for something other than itself
emotional self-regulation
the ability to control one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
internal feeling states
the subjective experience of emotion
emotion-related cognitions
thoughts about what one wants or one's interpretation of a situation
emotion-related physiological processes
physiological reactions that can change by regulating one's feelings and thoughts (like heart rate)
social competence
the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others
biologically-based individual differences in emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and self-regulation that demonstrate consistency across situations
New York Longitudinal Study methods
interviewed parents about their infants' nine characteristics and then categorized the results as easy babies, difficult babies, or slow-to-warm-up babies
NY Longitudinal Study results
40% easy babies
10% difficult babies
15% slow-to-warm-up babies
(the rest didn't fit in any category)
9 dimensions of temperament from NY Longitudinal Study
mood, adaptability, approach/withdrawal, intensity, rhythym, persistence, threshold, activity, distractibility
strength of emotional reactions; extreme highs and lows vs. mellow
regularity of biological cycles; predictable vs. unpredictable
response to challenges and obstacles; gives up vs. keeps at it
sensitivity to stimulation; notice vs. doesn't notice small change
behavioral inhibition
a temperamentally based style of responding characterized by the tendency to be particularly fearful and restrained when dealing with new or stressful situations
goodness of fit
the degree to which an individual's temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of his or her social environment
___ has its root in temperament (and is thus biologically-based) but is also shaped by interactions with the social and physical world
psychoanalytic theory of attachment
become attached because mom satisfies baby's "oral needs"; first relationship provides model for all others
behaviorist theory of attachment
mom provides relief from hunger; positive associations lead to attachment
Harlow & Zimmerman Study
compared the development of monkeys who were isolated from birth with those who were reared normally by their mothers. when the isolated monkeys were finally placed with other monkeys 6 months later, they showed severe social disturbances
what did the Harlow & Zimmerman study show?
that children's healthy social and emotional development is rooted in their early social interactions with adults
attachment theory
(John Bowlby) children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival
secure base
Bowlby's term for when an attachment figure's presence provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the infant to explore the environment
separation anxiety peaks at ___
14-20 mos.
stranger anxiety peaks at ____
8-10 mos.
a form of learning in which the young of some species of newborn birds and mammals become attached to and follow adult members of the species
internal working model of attachment
the child's mental representation of the self, of attachment figures, and of relationships in general that is constructed by its experiences with caregivers; this model guides children's interactions with caregivers and other people in infancy and at older ages
Strange Situation
Ainsworth's procedure in which the infant and its parent are placed in a lab playroom filled with interesting toys. the child is then exposed to 7 episodes, including 2 separations and 2 reunions with the parent, and 2 interactions with a stranger (one when the parent is present and one when the parent is out of the room)
results of Ainsworth's Strange Situation study
she found 3 behavioral patterns: secure attachment (the majority), insecure/resistant, and insecure/avoidant
secure attachment
sad to see parent leave and happy when they return (use them as a secure base) and recover quickly from any distress
get very upset when parent leaves the room, but when they come back, it both seeks comfort from parent and resists their embrace at the same time
indifferent toward parent (both when they leave and when they come back); just as easily comforted by a stranger as they are by their parent)
disorganized/disoriented attachment
don't fit into other categories; their behavior is inconsistent
adult attachment models
working models of attachment in adulthood that are believed to be based upon adults' perceptions of their own childhood experiences-especially their relationships with their parents-and of the influence of these experiences on them as adults
all the insecurely-attached Japanese infants were ____
parental sensitivity
such things as responsive caregiving when child is distressed and helping children engage in learning situations
an important factor that contributes to the security of an infant's attachment is ____
parental sensitivity
when does social comparison emerge mostly?
8-11 yrs. (middle to late elementary school)
personal fable
a form of egocentrism in which adolescents overly differentiate their feelings from those of others and come to regard themselves as unique and special
prosocial behaviors
benefit others (helping, sharing, etc)
Piaget believed that ____, more than ____ account for advances in children's moral reasoning
interactions with peers; adult influence
Piaget's 2 stages of development in children's moral reasoning
1)Morality of Constraint
2)Autonomous Morality
Morality of Constraint
children younger than 7-8 yrs., believe that rules are unchangeable and whatever parent, authority says is right; deviating from these rules is bad; **it is in this stage that they believe that what determines if an action is good or bad is the consequences, not the intentions
social conventional judgements
decisions that pertain to customs or regulations intended to secure social coordination and social organization (like table manners)
prosocial behaviors emerge by when?
the second year
the 2 most important contributors to moral reasoning are __ and__ and they took a __ approach to studying the development of moral reasoning
Piaget and Kohlberg; cognitive developmental
reflexive vocalization (and age)
hiccups, crying, burps, sighs; 0-2 mos.
two theories on what gets children from sentences to rules
empiricist and nativist
nativist vs. empiricist
nativist: properties of the learner
empiricist: properties of the environment
according to Huttenlocher, children (at what age?) (do what?) if their mothers/teachers do the same?
4-5 yr olds use more complex sentences

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