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undefined, object
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how we form linguistically meaningful utterance in speaking and sentences in writing
listing information about words that are that type of thing (hair, linguist, nose, blackboard)
what position does it occupy in the higher structure (utterance or sentence). The class waits. (the class is the head of the noun phrase).
person, place, thing, idea, state of being, quality, abstract concept (cat, house, dream, life, thought, running is good exercise)
modifies nouns/describes nouns- qualities, states of being, characteristics

often have endings like -al,-able,-like,-an

comparative (happier) and superlative (happiest)
they modify verbs and can also modify adjectives. they can also modify other adverbs. He is happily grinning.
articles- and, a, the, an

proceed nouns and give information about them (quantity, number) closed-class
noun modifier
nouns can be modifiers.

my linguistics class.
relational, specify relational meanings. closed class. between, within, on, under, from, to, near.
head of verb phrase and can stand alone if necessary
linking verb
be, like, seem, appear

AFTER linking verbs- predicate adjective that describes subject.
closed class. stand in for nouns. he, you, she, it.
personal pronoun
specifies a known element.
indefinite pronouns
unknown, unspecified elements in a clause.

ANYONE should be able to pass this test.
interrogative pronouns
appear for an unknown to answer a question.

demonstrative pronouns
this, that, these, those

points to something previously mentioned
relative pronouns
modifies noun phrase

The professor WHICH came down on them like judgement day.
Describe the relationship between phonetics and phonology.
Phonetics deals with sound production and perception, and phonology is the cognitive organization of sound.
Parts of speech
lexical categories
define and list open class lexical categories
noun, adverb, verb, adjective- parts of speech that admit new members (google, ipod, blog)
define and list closed class lexical categories
parts of speech that do not admit new members. pcpcda- preposition, complementizer, pronoun, conjunction, determiner, auxiliary verb
complementary distribution
like clark kent/superman.
they are different but there is something that relates them. one variant is, the other isn't.
free variation
more than one allophone variant can occur in a single context
underlying representation(UR)
phoneme- encodes phonetic symbols
minimal pair
2 contrastive elements- phonemes- must be different lexical items.

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