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Adler, Jung, Sullivan, Horney 2


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Individual Psychology
Adler's social psychology system
Adler was highly influenced by this...
His sickness and Darwin's theory
Adler believed that human behavior is determined largely by...
Social instincts rather than biological instincts
Social Interest
Innate potential to cooperate with others to achieve personal and societal goals
Sex (Adler)
Minimized interest in sex in shaping personality
Adler viewed the person as...
Holistic... mind and body is a whole (maslow agreed)
*Original form of an individual's adaption to life
*unconscious life plan developed between ages 3 and 5
*Involves a goal and a plan
Organ Inferiority
Person breaks down at his/her weakest physical point

(neuroses suffer a "inferiority of the brain" rather then the bladder, shoulder, etc)

*Biologically we are weaker than others
Growth (Adler)
Compensation and striving against inferiority
How did Adler feel about Freud
too reductionistic
Individual psychology really stems from...
Holistic view
Adler believed motivation is moving to the_______, Freud believed the _______ motivates us
Future; past
Aggression/Assertiveness Drive
If we are frustrated it comes out
(first area he disagreed with Freud)
Compensation (Adler)
Basic motivation; striving to over come
Masculine Protest
boys held in a higher esteem than girls

*boys need to be strong, in control, masculine... boys are better than girls

*NOT innate... SOCIAL
Fictional Finalism
We have different fictions in living...
We live that we are sure we are going to be here tomorrow...
What we see is the way it is (not so black and white)

(ex. heaven and hell, can't prove it, but people believe it)
Alfred Adler
Individual Psychology
Motivating force and leads to growth/improvement
Failure to compensate
Leads to inferiority complex...

Unable to cope with life's difficulties
Universal drive

"will to power"... rather than "aggressive drive"

(very different from instinctual drives)
Free will
Have the capacity to determine our own personality

Experiences & abilities are related to environment and heredity...

How the experiences are interpreted and used provides the basis for personality
Birth Order
believed this contributed much to personality development
First Born
Dethroning of first born leads to hostile and conservative style
Second Born
ambitious, rebellious, jealous
Second vs. youngest
Second is better adjusted, youngest is spoiled
Equally significant contributionto American and European psychology as Freud or Jung
Psychological Types (Adler)
Ruling: Aggressive, dominant; striving for personal power; bullie (external), suicide (internal)

Learning: sensitive; developed as shell for protection; dependent

Avoiding: avoid life in general; when pushed to limits can become psychotic

Socially useful: healthy person; both social interest and energy
Prototype (3 kinds of faulty lifestyles)
Personalities formed early in life... it is your lifestyle

*fixed by age 5

(1) Organ inferiorities: childhood disease
(2) Pampering: overly pampered (parents give in to everything)
(3) Neglect (neglected or abused)
Jung split from Freud based on?
(1) Disagreement about libido's use
(2)Belief in a collective unconscious that went beyond the personal unconscious
(3) Analyzed each other
Carl Jung
Analytic Psychology
conscious mind
Personal Unconscious
Not presently conscious, but can be
(similar to Freud's preconscious)
Collective Unconscious
Psychic inheritance; all of our experiences from our past and past species; Never directly conscious of it

*BIGGEST problem with Freud... Freud adimately DISAGREED!
A psychic organization composed of a core of emotions, around which ideas, attitudes, opinion, etc. agglutinate (similar to schema but broader)
Dynamics of complex
Emotions stimulate mental thoughts, those thoughts gather around core of feelings
Life of the Complex
Depends on the emotional core and as that extinguishes, so does the complex

(can have positive or negative role in a person's life)
Ego Complex
often thought of as simply "ego"

Experience it ourselves

Located in the consciousness

Strengths, weaknessess, successes
Taken from greek... "mask"

"general" nature, much like collective unconscious

Parents model this

True Identity

Jung viewed as healthy a balanced personality that could resisit group manipulations

Public image is different than who you are (people put on a face)
Found in the collective unconscious
displayed at different times

Exist before cultural influences have been undertaken... part of our species

Primordial images
Archetypes are found in the....
collective unconscious
Universal archetypes
expressions of meaning

(1) Mother: nurturing we needed; built in ability to recognize mothering relationship
(2) Mana: spiritual power; displayed during spiritual times
(3) Shadow: prehuman.. animal past (ex. reproduction)
~ex. sakes,monsters,giants
*dark side of the ego... all evil we are capable of is stored here
take on humanlike identity; anima and animus

Represent all of man's ancestral experiences with woman and vice versa
Includes situations, geometric figures
attitudes, fears, temptations immoral/uncivilized inclinations that are rejected

Emotional core is usually negative

"sum of all those unpleasant qualities we like to hide, together with the insufficiently developed functions and contents of the personal unconscious"
Shadow is an _________ personality with the broader personality or _________
inferior; alter ego
Shadow contains a....
"germ of good qualities, such as normal instincts, appropriate reactions, realistic insights, creative impulses"
not formed by every personality system

Based on the collective unconscious' POTENTIAL FOR UNITY
Self is the....
ultimate stage of growth

Contents of ego, persona, and shadow are completely acknowledged and dealt with by the self

Similar to Roger's concept of congruence
Ego is the subjective point of reference for consciousness.... just as the self is the subjective point of reference for the
totality of the psyche
a region that is both Multidirectional and multi-temporal

Identities of the personality, like ego, can move (in and out of consciousness)
is psychic as well as physical.. believed that mind-body dichotomy was harmful to validation of psychic processes
Psyche is purposful (teleological) and....
not only in bilogical/instinctive terms
The psyche is not of today...
Its ancestry goes back MILLIONS of years
Principle of opposites

for any given intention, there is an opposite suggested, based on physics concepts of equvalence and entropy (equalization of differences)

(unconscious vs conscious; male vs female; ego vs shadow)
Principle of Equivalence
energy created by opposition is given to both sides equally; what you do with it depends on your attitudes and wishes
Principle of Entropy
Things come together; energy decreases over time; took it from physics; distribution of energy
process of rising above our opposites and seeing who we are; come to grips with the idea that we have more bad than good
Schematization of Jung's Psyche Model
Bidirectional relationship between the psyche and our primordial past
Primordial past
our roots in a primitive state, evolving from a lower animal both physcially and psychologically

Continually effect our evolution as well, and has access to our past
Collective layer
covers both the personal conscious and personal unconscious
Empirical psyche
collective conscious
Conscious and unconscious subdivisions of the mind have a...
collective and personal aspect
View of unconscious

based on concept of primitive humans acting out of instinct

Considered mental conditon in which all things are possible and distincitons have not yet been made (embryological correlate)
Consciousness forms through differentiation
whole into parts, dividing experiences into opposites

Offered to as discrimination
Consciousness must always remain...
the smaller identity within the larger
Material that is repressed...
becomes the personal unconscious
Collective unconscious is NOT...
repressed (can't be, b/c it was never experienced to begin with)
Jung's personality types
(1) Extroverted: fix attention on people/things in external environment; faced toward the persona and outer reality

(2) Introverted: converse self within own identity; prefers their internal world of thoughts, feelings, fantasies, dreams; face toward the collective unconscious and its archetypes
Four Functions (ways of dealing with the inner and outer world)
(1) Sensing: get info from senses; good at looking & listening; good at understanding the world
~irrational (perceptual)

(2)Thinking: decision making, intake of info
~Rational (thinking)

(3)Intuiting: works outside usual conscious processess
~Irrational, but complex (than just hearing & seeing things)

(4)Feeling: weigh your emotional response (think about it)
~Rational (evaluating info)
Harry Sullivan
Interpersonal Psychiatry
a relatively enduring configuration of energy which manifests itself in characterizable processes in interpersonal relations
Structural Constructs
Dynamisms & Personification
Zonal Dynamisms
associated with eating, excreting, sexual gratification

*Patterned at birth
Interpersonal Dynamisms
associated with self, dyadic interactions, group

*mature and can change with learning
dynamism created to serve psychic purposes (ex. santa clause, boogyman)

*Can be fantasied characters or placed upon real people

*belived to begin with the child's personal recognition of "my body"

breaks down in terms of thinking of personal traits as "good-me" "bad-me" "not me"

*each due to how we deal with our parents
Complex personification
good me, bad me, and not me integrated and fomed as a whole
good me
largely conscious

mom is comforting
bad me
Mom is punishing

largely conscious
As children we do not see these two parts of mom...
we see it's 2 people in one
Not me
rearly experience this consciously, EXCEPT during schizophrenia
pretend roles we take on for learning or fun
Interpersonal relation is also a major dynamism
referred to what goes on between 2 people, or fantasied thoughts about relations between people (other people call this interpersonal)
Interpersonal situation
has a purpose; Purpose A is striving towards x from B

(1) conjunctive: harmony and desire to come together
(2) Disjunctive: tension and a desire to be separate
the sum of interlacing factors in the situation for the individual
Modes of experience
a style of IP experience, based on zonal/IP dynamisms available to the growing person at the time

(1) prototaxic: based only on zoal dynamisms, PREVERBAL, such as oral, anal zones (simplest, crudest, beginning of baby's life)

(2)Parataxic: based on CONSENSUAL VALIDATION; associated with language development, symbolic formations (one thing causes another, causation)
Consensual Validation
(1)ability go discriminate between fact and not fact

(2)ability to communicate knowledge clearly to others and have others clearly communicate thought to us
Parataxic distortions expressed in language that lack consensual validation
18+ months; orderly arrangement of language terms so understanding of experience is predominated by cnsensual validation
Sullivan's Developmental Epochs
(1)Infancy (birth - 1yr)
begins the process of developing
(2)Childhood (1-5 yrs)
Develpment of speech and imporved communication; language is NECESSARY! Parataxic experience; egocentric
(3)Juvenille: (6-8); Need for playmates and beginning healthy socialization; Need for a CHUM
(4) Preadolescence:(9-12); form a close friendship; capacity of less self-love
(5)Early adolescence: (13-17); puberty; need for sexual expression or lust
(6)Late adolescence: (18-22 or 23); long term relationship becomes the primary focus; need for a friend and sex combine; more conflicts btw parents; identity issues
(7)Adulthood: (23 on); struggles of adulthood; with solid progress through stages they will make friends easily... if not, they will have IP problems and anxiety
Difficulties of living
mental illness
more along the lines of a spectrum
Sullivan viewed symptoms in terms of...
interpersonal struggles
Therapy of IP pyschicatry
disccussed positive transference (personification that exists before therapy begins due to expectations of help); negative transference begins--> believed in interpretation to make client aware
Stages of therapy (sullivan)
inception, reconnaissance, detailed inquiry, termination; always summarized sessions *Important*
Sullivan was a strong advocate of...
Karen Horney
Basic anxiety and Neurotic needs
Karen Horney Psychoanalytic clinic and institute
services for abused women and kids; in Manhattan; training institute
Basic anxiety
the feeling a child has of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hotile world; arises from parent-child relationship
Motivation is...
the result of the need to seek security and feedom from helplessness in a threatening world, rather than the result of biological drives (freud)
means of attempting to cope with living safely in the world
Neurotic need
neuroses that are developed to cope with insecurity and helplessness become an established part of the personality
Neurotic Needs (list)
Neurotic Need for...
(1)affection & approval (please others and be liked)
(2)a partner (someone to take over their life; love will solve their problems)
(3)to restrict one's life to narrow borders (be undemanding, satisfied with little, be inconspicuous)
(4)power (control over others, to be inconspicuous)
(5)exploit others & get the better of them (manipulation & think people are there to be used)
(6)social recognition or prestige (overly concerned with appearance and popularity)
(7)personal admiration (fear of being thought of as nobodies, unimportant, meaningless)
(8)personal achievement (have to be number 1 in everything)
(9)self-sufficiency & independence (think they never need anyone)
(10)perfection & unassailability (driven to be perfect and scared of being flawed)
Neurotic trends
*Moving towards personality type: complaint, requires approval, needs a dominant partner; reflects acceptance of helplessness
(Similar to Adler's learning approach)

Moving away: detached, expresses independence, withdrawal, perfectionism; attempt to apprear self-sufficient but is a form of reaction formation
(similar to Adler's avoiding)

*Moving against: aggressive, assertion of power, exploitation, admiration; to prevent helplessness
(Similar to Adler's dominant type)
Neurotic trends are ineffective because...
they do not successfully cope with anxiety or meet basic human interpersonal needs
Self (Horney)
the core of your being, your potential
Neurotic self
Despised self
introjected or incorrectly symbolized impressions that you believe other have of you, with you accepting them as the "real you"
Ideal self
created out of the "shoulds" in life; not a positive goal; unrealistic and ultimately impossible
the neurotic swing back and forth between...
hating themselves and pretending to be perfect
horney's theory very similar to...
Rogerian conception of personality
Feminine Psychology
wrote a series of papers on women's psychology (karen Horney)
womb envy
in some men who feel envious of a woman's ability to bear children

*occationally can occur in neurotic women; NOT universal

*Penis envy is the need for power, NOT a penis
Horney's Theory
more focused on social and interpersonal aspects than freud's biological emphasis

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