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Horse Health and Disease: Lesson 7


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List the 4 types of problems (causes) of foal diseases
1. congenital and hereditary
2. bacterial and viral
3. accidents
4. nutritional and metabolic
what is the definition of a congenital condition?
a condition with which the foal is born with
List several (7) examples of congenital defects
1. Cleft palate
2. Hydrocephalus
3. polydactyly
4. cardiovascular anomalies
5. cataracts
6. clyclpia
7. many more
what is polydactyly (def)? what about hydrocephalus (def)?
polydactyly is having extra toes. Hydrocephalus is accumulation of fluid in the cerebral ventricles causes enlargement of the skull and compression of the brain, destroying much of the neural tissue.
What are 3 main causes of congenital conditions?
1. Poisonous plants (loco weed & Senecio)
2. Drugs (grisofulvin)
3. Unknown (by far the most common)
What is the def for hereditary conditions?
genetically passed conditions from parents to offspring and are often congenital
what are 2 examples of hereditary conditions
1. Umbilical & inguinal hernias
2. Cryptorchidism
what are the defs for a hernia and cryptorchidism?
hernia: protrusion of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening
Cryptorchidism: un-decended testicle(s)
what is septicemia?
the presence of bacterial toxins in the blood
What are 5 examples of bacterial diseases?
1. septicemia (?)
2. septic arthritis
3. gastroenteritis
4. pneumonia
5. omphalophlebitis (umbilical infection)
what are the 3 main routes of infection?
1. umbilicus (transplacental & through ubilicus after birth)
2. repiratory tract (inhalation)
3. gastrointestinal tract (ingestion)
What is colostrum
1st milk from udder; contains immunoglobulins that are concentrated in mammary gland during last 2-4 weeks of gestation.
The colostral antibody levels are ____x higher than serum (fill in blank)
What are the 2 main importances of colostrum?
1. no transpacental IG (immunoglobulin) transfer
2. 90% of all infectious disease during the 1st several weeks involve partial failure of colostral absorption
what is the method of colostral absorption and what's it called?
Pincoytosis: takes place in 1st 24hrs of life. IG in the colostrum in the small intestines are passivly absorbed by specific cells lining the wall and then released into the blood stream
what are 5 causes of FPT (failure of passive transfer...of IG)?
1. low IG level of colostrum
2. premature lactation (in this case, bottle the "leakage" and keep in fridge till foal is born)
3. failure to suckle
4. failure to absorb colostral IG
5. prematurity
What are the 3 main causes for low IG level in colostrum?
1. maiden mare
2. obese mare
3. lack of exercise
What are 2 treatments of FPT (failure of passive transfer)?
1. foal less than 24 hrs: oral colostrum
2. foal older than 24hrs: IV plasma
Neonatal diarrhea affects __% of foals w/in the first ______(time frame)
70-80% during the first 6 months
what are the 3 main causes for neonatal diarrhea
1. bacteria
2. virus
3. foal heat diarrhea (most common)
What are two types of bacteria that cause neonatal diarrhea?
salmonellosis & E. coli
what is one type of virus that causes neonatal diarrhea?
How many days after postpartum can the mare's "foal heat" cause neonatal diarrhea?
6-14 days
What are the treatments for neonatal diarrhea?
1. fluid and electrolyte balance
2. will mostly go away on its own
What are the 5 main (only 5, yeah..right) causes of colic in foals?
1. meconium impaction
2. atresia coli
3. rupture of urinary bladder (1-2 day olds)
4. ascarid impaction
5. inguinal & umbilical hernia
What is the most common form of neonatal colic, what is a symptom of it and how can it be treated/avoided?
meconium impaction; straining is a symptom. An enema can be used
What is atresia coli?
malformation of int4estine(the absence of a usual body opening) - lethal
What are the two main musculoskeletal problems?
1. (flexor) tendon laxities
2. angular limb deformities
Is flexo tendon laxity common? How is it treated?
Seen to some degree in almost all foals after birth. Is almost always self-resolving with growth and exercise/use
what are involved w/limb deformities?
Joints; the carpus is most common
What is a common angular limb deformities and what are the 2 types?
uneven growth in the growth plate area. Two types= valgus and varus
What does a varus deformity look like and what is it commonly called?
Called "pigeon toed". the bottome half of legs (below the knees) point inward, cause the top part of leg to bow outward
What does a valgus deformity look like and what are they commonly called?
Called "knock-kneed". the legs point outward toward the sides and the knees often are touching eachother
what are 3 types treatment alternatives to treating limb deformities?
1. time and use (most are mild and self correcting)
2. casts, splints, braces
3. surgical treatment
What are the two types of surgical treatment (and their descriptions) of angular limb deformities?
1. physeal stabilization: most common-slowing down the growth of one side of phsis via addition of screws, wires, staples, ect.
2. periosteal stripping: cutting part of the periosteum open and using an instrament to undermine the physis
what are the names of the best three cats?
Finkey,Cricket, and Kaya:)

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