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Microbiology test 2


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Cause's DNA to unzip during DNA replition
Cause's the re-pairing, and catches mistakes during DNA replication
DNA polymerase I
Corrects mistakes during DNA replication
DNA polymerase III
Forms Hydrogen bonds and Final bonding in DNA replication
Recoils DNA to complete DNA replication
What is DNA replication
The process by which DNA duplicates itself prior to cell divison
What is trascription of mRNA
The process by which mRNA is made from info encoded by a gene (limited DNA site)
In mRNA what is the range of nucleotides
100-1000's nucleotides long
what is any sequence of 3 nitrogen bases or Nucleotides
How many Codon combo's are there. How many code for an amino acid?
64 total. 61 code for amino acid
What is the start codon
AUG, Methionine
Name the 3 stop codon's
What is Translation
The change of gentic info carried by mRNA into an amino acid chain or protien.
What are the 6 Gateways to infection
Skin, Gastrointestinal tract, fecal bacteria (exit), respiratory, Urogential, Pregnancy, Nonsocomial (dr visits)
How many Cells in the human body
75 trillon
What is a Mutation
Any perminate inheritable change in Gentic info of a cell.
How many Mutations occur daily
What is level of mutation is said to be high and what level is said to be low
10,00000 10-5th power is low

10,0000000000 10-10th power is high mutation.
What are the 3 causes of mutation.
Chemical, Radiation, Just happens.
What are some examples of chemically caused mutations
Petrolium products (cancerious) Nitrous Acid, Agent orange
What is Agent orange
the cemicals 2,4,5-T and 2-4-D mixed together.
What are some examples of Radiation caused mutations
X-rays, Gama Rays, ultra violate rays (sun)
What is the addition, deletion or substitution of 1 or more bases in the gentic code
point Mutation
Causes the production of nonfuctional or different protien
Causes the production of nonsense condon out of sequence. give example
Nonsence mutation.

example: Aug-uAA start-stop
to alture a nucleotide but not change the amino acid or protien is?
a Silent Mutation
When a gene reverts to its original base it is?
A back Mutation, DNA polymerase
When 1 base is either added or deleted it is
A frameshift mutation
How does lysozyme fight infections. and give example of where lysozymes are found
attack peptidoglycans(cell wall) of bacteria
How does normal flora cause infections.
Because its an Endogenous spred(found all over the body) it is opertunistic can cause infection from wound or take advantage
What normal flora is found on the skin
Staphylocccus Mircococcus Corynebacterium Propionibacterium. Malassezia (fungi) Demodix(animals)mange
What normal flora is found in the mouth
strep. Nesseria Staph.
What normal flora is found in the stomach
Normal flora is the Intestine
Eubacterium, Clostridiumm step. E-coli
What normal flora is in the Urinary tract
Staph, Strep
What % of blood is made up of Erythrocytes. and what do they do
Carry oxigen, 45%
What % of blood is made up of plamsa
55%. Mostly warter
What % of blood is made up of platlets(thrombocytes)
Less then 1%
what is a normal White blood count (leukocytes)
What is a high white blood count
What white blood count is a indication of Leukemia
What is Granular white cells
Large and visible (chemical pockets) and broken down by PH dye's
What is Agranular white cells
Small or nondisernable (chemical pockets)broken down by function. Have X-large nucleous
What Percetage of White blood cells are Neutrophil's. And what are there primary Charactoristics
65%. prefer neutral PH (stain with a neutral dye) they active phagocytes (army T-cell) active cell eaters
What percetage of white blood cells are Eosinophil. And primary Charactoristics
3%. stain with acid dye. They distroy chemical infections. cause inflamation and respond to alergy
What percetage of white cells are basophil. and primary function
less the 1% ph basic. respond to worm (fungi) infection and some alergy inflamation
What 3 leukocytes are Granular
Neutrophil, Eosinophil, basophil.
What 2 lymphocytes are Agranular
Lymphocytes and Monocytes.
What % of white cells are Lymphocites and primary function
25% include T-cell (killer cells) B-cell(form antibodys)
What % of white cells are Monocytes and primary function
5% largest of white blood cells (ambush) wedge inside muscle tissue and grab invaders
What is the lymphatic system made up of in basic terms
Network of glans and ducts that filter blood. (smokers lyphatic system is gummed up)
What is the reason for Inflammation
Swelling & fever increase blood flow to infected area,where it fights infection temp increase also hurts antigen's
What is an Antigen. give examples
forgien invaders. bacteria, virus, venom, poison,
What is the antigenic determinant site
unique feature to antigen. site which an antibody attaches to an antigen.
What is Valance
The number of Antgenic Determinat sites.
What is an Antibody
protien produced by B-cell that attacks a specific antigen.
What is the atigenic variable site
The site on the Antibody that attaches to the Antigen each antibody can cover 2 antigenic determinate sites
What is the percentage shape and function of IgG antibodys. how are they transfered
80%. monomer, provide long term immunity. tranfered threw placenta only
What is the percentage shape and function of IgM antibodys
6% Petamer. Cluster or group antigen pull antibody to one place
What is the percentage shape and function of IgA antibodys
13% Dimer, Cluster or group antigen, found in mucus membrain and milk
What is the percentage shape and function of IgD antibodys
1%, monomer. B-cell receptor site triger b-cell to react
What is the percentage shape and function of IgE antibodys
.0002% monomers, fight off worm infection (main causes of alergy's)
What constitutes active immunity
20years+ last a long time
what constitutes passive immunity.
short lived less then 20 years.
What are the 3 forms of active immunity. give examples
Species: gained becase you are a specific species
Inate: gained due to geography ie Sicle Cell/malaria
Individual:family traits/life experiences
What is Active artifical immunity
20years+ from vaccine (must be given)
What is passive natural immunity
short lived 3-4 years. gained by recoverey of infection.
What is Passive artifical immunity
Short Lived, Vaccination. Example: MMR DPT shots. mesals,mumps rebela. diptheria, pertosis, tetnis
What are some examples of Vaccines from killed whole bacteria
Bubonic plague. Cholera, anthrax,
What are some examples of live attenuated bacteria(not viable but still alive)
TB, Typhoid
What are some examples of Acellular Vaccines(only parts of bacteria with AD site)
Meningococle meningitis
What are some examples of Toxoid Vaccines(purified bactial toxin,injected small amounts)
Botulism. DPT
What are some examples of Inactive whole virus(not viable but intact)
rabies, hep A, salk, polio, old world flu.
What are some examples of Live attenuated virus(still viable but weak)
MMR, sobin pollio, yellow fever, old flu,
What are some examples of Subunit Virus Vaccines(part of the virus injected)
todays flu. ie Flu shots
What are some examples of Recombinant Vaccines(use genetic material)
Hep-B. Pretosis
Give the cause function and examples of type I alergy's
Caused by IgE antibodies, common hay fever, pollin, can cause anaphylactic shock
Give the cause function and examples of type II alergy's
Caused by IgG or IgM. Wrong Blood transfusion A-B B-A blood platlets sucked dry causes bruising
Give the cause function and examples of type III alergy's
Caused by IgG & IgM antibodys become traped in tissue remitoid arthritis multiplesclerosis
Give the cause function and examples of type IV alergy's
Hypersesitivity, poison Ivy, poison Oak, organ transplant rejection, T-cell attack infection but become carrier.
What the high weight characters of bacteria
Gram stain #1
oxigen requirement
spore production
firmation test
What the low weight characters of bacteria
temp growth range
growth charactoristics
What is the Bergeys manual and how was it started
Created in 1925 by journal of bacteriology David Bergey died left money to fund journal. currently in 9th edition
What does a + mean in bergeys and what does a - mean
90% or more of the test react=+
90% or more dont react= -
What does [+] and [-] mean
75-90% react+ or dont -
What does D mean in bergeys
25-75 react/dont react
What are primary charactoristic of the Staphlyococci Group of Bacteria
Gram + never produce spores
facultative, anaerobic, Pygenic (puss former) Some are hemolytic(break down blood)
What is the Charactoristics of Staph Aureus
Produce Coagulas(cause blood clots) Toxic shock syn, and are Beta-hemolytic, attact break down B-cell
What the the Symtoms of Staph Aureaus
Blood infection, cause heart attack, stoke, eat skin, Beta hemolytic
How is Staph Aureus transmited
Cut, Legion, Surgery
What is a good Treatment of Staph infections
Penacillan. Cephalosporins
What are good ways to control Staph
Antibodys and good anticeptic practice
What are the Charactoristic of Staph Saprophyticus
Non-coagulase. non-hemolitic
What are the symtoms of staph saprophyticus
Unrinary track infections (common in women)
What is Staph Saprophyticus transmitted
Opertunitic. IE normal flora to Urinary track
What are the charactoristics of Staph epidermidis
Non-coagulase. blood infection
What are the main Charactoristic of the Steptococci Group
gram+ capsule+
White spred
A-V types (A severe b less severe) Worst are A,B,C,D (beta hemolitic)
What are the Characteristics of strep pyogenes
Puss formers.
What are the symptoms of strep Pyogenes
Farengitis(strep throat)advance to Rhumatic Fever(heart valves) damage kidneys(scarlet fever)cause death
How is strep pyogenes spred
Airsols(from the mouth air born)
What is a good treatment for for Strep infections
Penacillan, Erythromycin
What are some ways of Controling strep Pyogenes
Rapid treatment. Removal of Tonsils
What are the Characteristics of Strep Agalactiae
Beta hemolitic, Common in Vaginal track, intestines pharax. *not normal flora
how is Strep Agalactiae spred
Children exposed during birthing process, opertunitics
What are the characteristics of strep Faecalis Type D*
Alpha and beta-hemolitic comming in intestine(mamals)
What are the Symptoms of Strep Faecalis.
Urinary track infection(severe) endocarditis(inflamation of the heart)
How is Strep Faecalis(enterococcus spred)
What are the Charactoristics of Strep Mutans Type N
Non-hemolitic, big acid producer, normal-flora in mouth causes cavities(dental term is carries)
What are the symtoms of strep Mutans
Teeth Rott
What is the Treatment of Strep Mutans
Fill or remove infected tooth/teeth
What is a good way to control Strep Mutans
Proper dental hygene
What are the charactoristic of Strep Pneumoniae (diploccous)
Alpha hemolitic common in respratory track (80 stains) *not normal floral. effects mostly children
How is Strep Pneumoniae spred
What is a good control of Strep Pneumoniae
un-controlable a weak vaccine is availble for high risk ppl only 50% of the population are carriers.
What are the Symtoms of Strep Pneumoniae
Respratory infection 30% mortality rate.
What are the charactoristics of Neisseria group
Gram negative, falcutative, anaerobic,
What are the Charactoristics of Neiesseria gonorrhoeae
What are the symptoms of Neiesseria gonnorrhoeae
Ferments Glucose, mild burning sensation during urination
What are the 2 forms of Gonorrhoeae
Venereal (Sexual transmission) and Congenital From the birthing process eye infection can cause blindess
What is the treatment of Gonnorrhoeae
Ceftriaxone. Quinolone, spectinomycin. Silver-nitrate drops in the eyes(congenital)
What are the Charactoristics of Neisseria meningitidis
Small children high risk, grows in the nasal passages moves to the brain.
What are The symtoms of Neisseria Meningitidis
Headache, fever,stiff neck, coma, shock, cardiac failure, can kill in 24hrs
How ia Meningitidis spred
What is the treatment for Meningitidis
Penacillin, ampicillin
How can you control Meningitidis
Most ppl have good immunity. poor (ineffctive vaccine available) and isolation

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