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401 AFTER midterm (final cards) hearing, sound, audio


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149. What are the “vocal organs”?
Lungs trachea larynx pharynx nasal cavity and oral cavity
150. What are the ends of the “tube” used in speech production?
Start at the lung =end at the mouth
151. What anatomical parts make up the vocal tract?
Pharynx mouth and nose
152. What is / where is the nasal cavity?
Above the soft palate and the pharyx it is bigger then the oral cavity
154. Which is larger: the oral or nasal cavities?
155. How are the vocal folds set in vibrations? (In other words what is the source of energy?)
Bernoulli effect from the enegery that resides in the muscles of the chest and the abdomen
156. What type of tissue makes up the vocal folds (cords)?
157. What is the glottis
It is the space that is between the vocal folds
158. How is the glottis“ created”?
By the opening and closing of the vocal folds
159. What is a glottal pulse? Pg 99
regular coming together of the vocal folds / the wave – then creates a wave that then gets modified by the
160. Describe (in general terms) what the Bernoulli effect is and why it is important in discussion of phonation?
When you breath your glottises are at rest, and there are no glottal pulses no (phonation) as you go into the process of phonation changes to the glottis space then air pushes through the vocal folds the granule effect describes the ability of the folds to go in and out closed and open. In the attempt to maintain pressure as the air is escaping the vocal force gets forced closed the b effect closed them so the air can’t escape. In turn you get a vibration because the periodic predictable opening and closing of the vocal folds creates a frequency
161. What determines an individual person’s fundamental frequency of vibration of vocal folds?
When you have large vocal folds (high mass) they vibrate best at low frequency, with low mass they vibrate better at high frequency.
162. What type of wave is generated by the vocal folds?
Periodic wave
163. If a person has fundamental frequency (F0) of vocal fold vibration at 125hz what other harmonic frequencies are created also?
125hz Of what is the harmonic frequencies any increase in the addition of the first frequency 125/250/375/500/625 The fundamental and all the harmonics = the SOURCE
164 what does the glottal wave sound like?
We don’t know but we can make up something that would sound like it from the fundamental frequency (digital synthesizer)
165. What does the vocal tract do to the glottal wave?
The vocal track (the air space superior to the pharynx and glottis) do Shapes the content by the passive acts of the
166. What specifically about the vocal tract differentiates speech Sounds?
The oral cavity
167. What does the vocal tract act like
an air column
168. What do resonance in the vocal tract do to the glottal wave
it chooses out certain frequencies from the glottal wave
169. What id the glottal spectrum?
It is a spectrum that provides is with the pectoral record of the frequencies created by the glottal
170. What is the frequency response curve? What are the other names for the same thing?
Resonance curve filter spectrum frequency characteristic curve
171. What is a formant?
The clearest frequencies heard by the listener f1 or f2 or f3 it is only tied to vowels
172. What is the relationship between the glottal source spectrum and the frequency response curve of the vocal tract?
With out the source you can’t get a response from the curve, so the relationship is the response curve is dependent on the glottal source
173. What physical characteristics (of speech production) influence our abilities to differentiate vowel sounds?
The way that they ear shaped, or the shape of the vocal tracked
174. What is the hallmark of speech production?
3 things, time, frequency, and amplitude
175. What is a sound spectrograph?
Lets you see what the vocal tract is doing to produce speech sounds
176. In general terms, how are vowels produced?
They are a glottal sound wave passing though a relatively open vocal track
177. On a sound spectrogram how is amplitude depicted?
178. On a sound spectrogram how is time depicted?
179. On a sound spectrogram how is frequency depicted?
180. According to the text, what is a pure vowel?
It is a vowel whose qualities remain unchanged as you speak them
181. Other than a pure vowel, what other type of vowel are there?
182. What is the relationship between formants and vowels?
Vowels have them, it is a cluster of frequencies
183. Which formants are required to discriminate vowels?
Formants one and two (f1 or f2) BOTH
184. For a given vowel, which formation is higher in frequency: f1 or f2
185. What three vowels are also called the corner vowels? Why is this the case?
“ee” “oo” “ah” “a^=bat” have chucks of frequency called formants
186. What did the Peterson and barney data demonstrate? Why is this research finding still important today?
information is still valid
187. What about vowel formants specifically contribute to their intelligibility regardless of age or gender of the talker?
Duration, power, chunks of frequencies, high amplitude,
188. What is the status of the nasal cavities during the production of a vowel by a typical American talker?
Mostly the nasal cavities are sealed off,
189. Acoustically what would the contribution of nasal cavities be to the vowel?
Makes the sounds lower , weak , and low frequency
190. acouring to Pickett what three factors affect formant frequency location?
Length of v track, location of contractions, narrow they are.
191. What is Pickett’s length rule Regarding the average formant frequency?
The longer the size the lower the formant frequency
192. What is Pickett’s oral contraction f1 rule” regarding the predictabilities of the frequency of f1
by constricting the font part of the vocal track you lower the sound of f1 EEEEEE
193. What is pickets pharyngeal contriction/f1 rule⬝ regarding the predictability of the frequency of f1
the F1 is raised OOOOOAAAAAAA
194. What is picket’s back tongue constriction /f2 rule regarding the predictability of the frequency of f2 by a back tongue
contraction the f2 gets lowered
195. What is pickets front tongue contraction/ f2 rule regarding the predictability of the frequency of f2
as the tongue position construction and the greater the constriction the more f2 is raised
196. What is pickets lip rounding rule⬝ regarding average formant frequencies?
The more the rounding the more the constriction the more the formants are lower
197. What two vowels demonstrate each of the above rules (except length rule)
eeeeeoooooooo ooooooaaaaaaaa
198. accourding to the text, what features specify consonants?
Place of articulation, and manner , voice vs voiceless
199. in addition to the above features, what other characteristics is part consonant production?
Voices vs. not voicing
200. what are three ways sound is produced in speech production? 1
.Periodic repetitive laryngeal vibrations, 2.random vibration sounds ( noise) APERIODIC, fricative, 3. plosion
201. how can these three ways of sound production be used to categorize types of speech sounds?
Because they each are strongly or mostly in the fricative periodic or random.
202. what do nasal liquid and glide sounds have in common?
All vibrated
203. in the production of nasal sound what happens tin the speech mechanism and what is the acoustic product of this action?
The vilorport “soft pallet” relaxes and lets air into the nasal cavity, and now the cavity resonates and makes it sound more nasal
204. what are two specific acoustic characteristics of nasal speech sounds or of speech sounds which are given some nasality?
M, n, “king”
205. what three subcategories of manner of articulation can also be categorized as⬝ frictionless⬝
liquids, nasal and glides
206. in fricative consonants where is the source of the friction?
The cavity that is anterior to the blockage is creating the friction.
207. why are there no formant structures present in fricative consonants?
Because only the last cavity is set into vibration
208. what acoustic description generally best describes fricative consonants?
Noises repeatable noise replicateble
209. why is pace of articulation a factor in the acoustic composition of fricative consonants?
Colors the frequency, determines the frequency
210. which fricative has the greatest intensity? Which has the least? Voiceless
th is the weaker, shh is the greatest
211. what happens when a consonant sound is “voiced”?
the vocal folds are vibrated
212. what is/where is the voice bar?
A dark band of energy at the bottom of the spectrogram
213. what generally is the frequency content of the voice bar?
Chunk of energy fundamental frequency same timing as the consonant it’s self
220. what is voice onset time?
The time between the release of the air and the beginning of voicing
215. how is a plosive sound created?
by blocking the air pressure in the vocal tract and then suddenly releasing it
216.what is one acoustic characteristic of plosive sound?
a short silence
217. what is one component of a plosive speech sound that is not part of any other speech sound production?
Occurs is voice or voiceless
218. why is place of articulation also a factor in plosive production
because the trachea is open
219. how does place of articulation of the plosives influence the general frequency content?
Because it is the only thing that molds the frequency
221. what are two acoustic differences between a voiced versus an unvoiced plosive?
there is less opportunity to hear the voiceless you can hear the beginning of the vowel

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